The Anarchives (
Fri, 8 Mar 1996 23:59:08 +0000 (GMT)

Date: Fri, 8 Mar 96 09:10:31 -0800
From: Arm The Spirit <>

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||| **** Volume 1, Number 5 ***** March 7, 1996 **** |||


Communism as the ultimate evil has always been the specter
haunting property owners, as it threatens the very root of
their class position and superior status. The Soviet,
Chinese, and Cuban revolutions were traumas to Western
elites, and the on-going conflicts and the well-publicized
abuses of Communist states have contributed to elevating
opposition to communism to a first principle of Western
ideology and politics. This ideology helps mobilize the
populace against an enemy, and because the concept is fuzzy
it can be used against anybody advocating policies that
threaten property interests or support accommodation with
Communist states or radicalism. It therefore helps fragment
the left and labor movements and serves as a political-
control mechanism. If the triumph of communism is the worst
imaginable result, the support of fascism abroad is
justified as a lesser evil.

-- Edward S. Herman & Noam Chomsky

Larry Pratt, the Council for Inter-American Security
and International Fascist Networks

by Tom Burghardt
Bay Area Coalition for Our Reproductive Rights


Recent allegations of anti-Semitism and racism levelled
against Larry Pratt, a national co-chairman of the Buchanan for
President campaign committee, is an intriguing example of media
obfuscation and "truth" on the half-shell. That Pratt addressed
the 1992 "Christian Men's Meeting," organized by notorious
Christian Identity racist, Pete Peters, is an established fact.
That Pratt shared the platform with Aryan Nations _fuhrer_,
Richard Butler and "former" Klan "Grand Dragon," Louis Beam, the
neo-Nazi architect of "leaderless resistance," is incontestable.
That he gave a speech at the 1993 Jubilation Conference in
Sacramento, California, an annual gathering of far-rightists'
sponsored by the anti-Semitic publisher of _Jubilee_, the
flagship tabloid of the Christian Identity movement, is true and
has been accurately reported by the bourgeois press.

What should be of equal concern to the media is information
about Mr. Pratt which is far more damaging -- his close
collaboration over a 20 year period with an international network
of war criminals, neo-Nazi terrorists, and the organizers of
Asian, European and Latin American death squads. But because
such activities advanced the geopolitical and military goals of
the United States, Pratt's actual record is passed over in
_silence_; a facet of media self-censorship that has been well-
documented elsewhere.[1]

At the outset of this report I will emphasize, Pratt is a
reactionary whose political orientation can aptly be described as
clerical-fascist. On numerous occasions, he has expressed
disdain for democracy and the economic, political and social
rights of the oppressed. His ideological and personal links to
the theocratic wing of the Christian Right, the anti-abortion
movement and "Patriot" militias, though of interest, will be
explored in another report currently in preparation.

This edition of AFIB however, will explore at some length,
the dimensions of Larry Pratt's ties to the national security
state. I will demonstrate that Pratt, Buchanan and a host of
other "respectable conservatives," far from being "outsiders" or
"populists" are active agents and apologists for the global
crimes of U.S. imperialism.

Intellectuals in the Service of Global Terror

The Council for Inter-American Security (CIS) is a rightist
outfit that played a pivotal role formulating Washington's
program for counter-revolutionary war and mass murder in Central
America during the 1980s. Larry Pratt, was a central figure
within the CIS hierarchy as was Patrick Buchanan; Pratt was
secretary to the group while Buchanan functioned as an
organizational director (see Appendix for complete list of board
members and principle players).

But CIS was more than a New Right think-tank researching and
formulating foreign policy for the Reagan administration. The
group functioned in a dual-capacity; as an alarmist "public
policy institute" and as a domestic spy ring, a "privatized"
version of the FBI's infamous COINTELPRO operations. Having
staked-out Latin America as their geopolitical niche, CIS
targeted Central America solidarity activists, progressive
clergy, and the Salvadoran exile community. The group gathered
intelligence and disseminated disinformation, funneling data on
foreign policy opponents to the FBI and the intelligence service
of the Salvadoran death squad state.

The domestic side to illegal CIA-Contra operations were
aided by a broad spectrum of domestic and international
reactionaries. Many of the state-sanctioned criminals who sought
to subvert democratic processes in the U.S. and overseas were
connected to a network which included, among others: the John
Birch Society (JBS); the World Anti-Communist League (WACL);
Christian fundamentalist and Catholic theocrats; anti-Castro
terrorists grouped in Alpha 66/Brigade 2506; the LaRouche
organization and the Unification Movement of South Korean
fascist, Rev. Sun Myung Moon.[2]

While such groups operated secretly, they did so with the
knowledge, financial backing and encouragement of powerful
American corporate and political interests. According to
journalist Ross Gelbspan:

A...private group which flourished during the Reagan era was
the Washington-based Council for Inter-American Security.
The group disseminated reams of material during the 1980s
purporting to prove linkages between a Soviet-inspired
global terror network and liberal and left-wing American
groups opposed to US foreign policies. CIS also expended
considerable effort to improve the public image of the
reputed Salvadoran death squad leader Roberto D'Aubuisson.
When the FBI's CISPES files were pried open in 1988 by a
lawsuit brought by the Center for Constitutional Rights they
were found to contain several reports written by J. Michael
Waller, a researcher whose work has been sponsored by the
nongovernmental Council for Inter-American Security. But
Waller's work to connect American political dissenters to an
international communist-terrorist plot was part of a public-
private partnership.[3]

By 1984, FBI "active measures" against CISPES and the
Sanctuary Movement were in full-swing. Fifteen Bureau field
offices, dozens of agents and hundreds of "private" right-wing
intelligence "assets" were involved in these illegal operations.
More than 200 incidents of harassment and intimidation against
activists were documented. Many incidents involved church and
office break-ins, theft of files and the infiltration of local
CISPES chapters by Bureau informants. Peaceful public rallies
and demonstrations were disrupted by goons affiliated with Rev.
Moon's Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles

One case that had particularly ominous implications was that
of Yanira Corea, a 24 year old Salvadoran exile active in the Los
Angeles CISPES chapter. In June 1987, the young woman was
kidnapped, sexually assaulted, tortured and threatened with death
if her "subversive" activities didn't stop. Corea's brother was
a union activist in El Salvador. Prior to her abduction she
received a threatening letter containing dried flower petals a
photo of her three year old son and the notation -- "Flowers in
the desert die," a traditional warning of the death squads.[4]

Though Bureau informants could not produce a shred of
evidence linking these groups to "terrorism," the FBI actually
_increased_ the level of their attacks. According to the logic
of Bureau red hunters, the _lack_ of criminal activity in and of
itself was demonstrable _evidence_ of a broad "conspiracy"
hatched by shrewd agents linked to the KGB. This was an illusion
that the Council for Inter-American Security helped to create.

Throughout the period, the FBI were fed reports alleging
that CISPES was a "terrorist" organization. Waller, a research
director and editor of the CIS journal, _West Watch_, wrote a
text with the fanciful title, "CISPES: A Terrorist Propaganda
Network," that was given wide play by the media.[5] However,
because Mr. Waller's services produced the desired _propaganda
effect_ intended by his handlers, he secured several generous
grants from the State Department's Latin American Office of
Public Diplomacy (OPD).[6] Recent American history is replete
with examples of the profitability of lying in order to advance
State interests; Elliot Abrams and Oliver North are but the tip
of the iceberg in this regard.

Prior to Reagan's 1980 election, CIS was the principle
organization leading the charge for an "activist" foreign policy
to "defeat communism" in Central America. In 1980, they
published the influential, _A New Inter-American Policy for the
Eighties_, generally known as the "Santa Fe Document."

Lewis Tambs, "Sante Fe's" principle editor, would be
appointed by Reagan as ambassador, first to Columbia and then to
Costa Rica, the launching pad for Contra attacks into Nicaragua
along the "Southern front."[7] Other Committee of Sante Fe
members included Roger Fontaine, a National Security Council
(NSC) adviser on Latin American affairs; retired Lt. General
Gordon Sumner, who became a special assistant to the Secretary of
State for Latin American affairs; and Lynn Francis Bouchey, an
active organizer for the Unification Church's CAUSA operations in
Central and South America.[8]

Bouchey, the co-author of _The Strategy of Terror_ (written
with Stefan Possony), was a former member of the Young Americans
for Freedom employed by the American-Chilean Council, a front for
the murderous Pinochet regime.[9] Possony, a Senior Fellow at
the Hoover Institute, long-time WACL operative and board member
of Lyndon LaRouche's, Fusion Energy Foundation, was a founding
member of the Council, as was Dr. Anthony Bouscaren, a right-wing
operative who had worked for the racist Pioneer Fund (see

The Committee of Sante Fe alleged among other things, that
the U.S. "must seize the initiative or perish. World War III is
almost over." CIS viewed the Soviet Union as an "aggressor" that
was "strangling the Western industrialized nations."[11]

Central America was described as "the soft underbelly of the
United States." The authors called for the "restoration" of the
Monroe Doctrine as the linchpin of U.S. regional strategy. In
other words, the United States was free to pursue its regional
interests unhindered. Bluntly, this meant that the internal
politics of the Central American states were subject to "review"
by the U.S.: "correctives" -- dictated from Washington -- would
be applied as needed.

As a practical necessity, such "correctives" included the
destruction of the Cuban, Grenadian and Nicaraguan Revolutions
and the maintenance of "the fundamental order of things" in
Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. The Committee wrote:

America is everywhere in retreat. The impending loss of the
petroleum of the Middle East and potential interdiction of
sea routes spanning the Indian Ocean, along with the Soviet
satellization of the mineral zone of Southern Africa,
foreshadow the Findlandization of Western Europe and the
alienation of Japan.

Even the Caribbean, America's maritime crossroad and
petroleum refining center is becoming a Marxist-Leninist
lake. Never before has the Republic been in such jeopardy
from its exposed southern flank. Never before has American
foreign policy abused, abandoned and betrayed its allies to
the south in Latin America.

...It is time to sound a clarion call for freedom, dignity
and national self-interest which will echo the spirit of the
American people. Either a _Pax Sovietica_ or a world-wide
counter-projection of American power is in the offing. The
hour of decision can no longer be postponed.[12]

Though the authors freely employed alarmist rhetoric with
little regard to the actual history of U.S. regional domination,
"Sante Fe" was not the production of marginal right-wing "kooks"
obsessed by the "red menace." According to the Interhemispheric
Resource Center,

In the early years of the Reagan administration, the
organization was one of the more influential think tanks of
the New Right, providing both policy and policymakers to the
new administration. In the heyday of its influence, one
observer noted, top officials of CIS "shuttle[d] to and from
key policy-making and advisory roles in the
administration...." Among those tapped for administration
positions were Patrick Buchanan, who became President
Reagan's communications director...[13]

Today, Buchanan markets himself as an "outsider" standing up
for the "workin' man," against a godless, secular humanist cabal
of multinational corporations, abortionists, feminists,
homosexuals, immigrants and socialistic "one-worlders" intent on
imposing a New World Order on the American people. His project
has been assisted by the media who have tossed his actual record
down the Orwellian memory-hole.

As noted above, CIS was engaged in a covert war against U.S.
leftists, progressive clergy and the Salvadoran exile community,
channeling information gleaned by its operatives, to the FBI and
the Salvadoran national security apparatus. This too, has a long
history in the United States.[14]

Col. Samuel Dickens, a former intelligence officer and CIS
board member, was the executive director for inter-hemispheric
affairs for the American Security Council (ASC), an outfit
founded by ex-FBI agents. ASC was an instrumental group which
targeted leftists during the 1950s, the period of the McCarthyite
witch-hunts. Founded in 1955, ASC funding has been provided by
Motorola, Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics, among
others.[15] The information they collected, much of it bogus,
was then sold to ASC's dues-paying corporate members. At the
height of their domestic operations ASC red hunters, including
the sinister Roy Cohn, Senator McCarthy's chief inquisitor, were
gathering the names of alleged "subversives" at the staggering
rate of 20,000 _per month_.[16] One analyst has said that the
ASC is "not just the representative of the military-industrial
complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial

Another significant source of support for the Council and a
host of other "conservative" organizations, was Rev. Moon's
Unification Church. Bouchey helped organize two conferences for
CAUSA, led by another retired general, E. David Woellner.[18] He
was also a board member of the United States Global Strategy
Council, identified by researchers, Louis Wolf and Frederick
Clarkson as "another CAUSA operation."[19] In 1981, Bouchey was
"specially commissioned" by Moon's World Media Institute to
prepare and present a "content analysis" of media coverage of
U.S. policy in El Salvador.[20]

Active chapters of Moon's organization existed throughout
the region; the largest affiliates were centered in Argentina,
Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. In Brazil, the director of CAUSA
said, "we are forming the future base for a large political
party, though at present we are still apolitical...we want to
form a movement like Le Pen's in France." Needless to say,
French fascist, Jean Le Pen, has done just that with the National
Front, with significant financial backing from the Moon

But Moon's extensive Latin American operations had a dual-
purpose: the construction of an anti-communist "armed church"
and as a "unofficial" link among CIA intelligence assets and the
leaders of the death-squad states.

In Bolivia, Thomas Ward was a liaison between the CIA, Nazi
war criminal Klaus Barbie, Barbie's organization, the "Fiances of
Death" and the regime of "cocaine general" Luiz Garcia Meza,
prior to Bolivia's bloody 1980 putsch. Ward and Barbie "were
often seen together;" the introspective Ward was described as an
individual "who always seemed to be absorbed in prayer."
According to Col. Bo Hi Pak, Moon's chief lieutenant: "God has
chosen the Bolivian people in the heart of South America as the
ones to conquer communism." This during a period when Bolivian
narco-operations were greatly expanding -- with the knowledge of
the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.[22]

Other CIS board members or advisors who have had close ties
to the Moon organization:

Roger Fontaine: a former member of the National Security
Council. After leaving the NSC, Fontaine became a reporter and
political analyst for the _Washington Times_, a newspaper owned
by a subsidiary of the Moon network. Salvadoran death-squad
leader, Roberto D'Aubuisson bragged of his ties to the Reagan
administration, particularly Roger Fontaine, to the _New York
Times_ during a 1981 interview.[23]

Lt. General Gordon Sumner: a CIS director and advisor; Sumner
was also a board member of the International Security Council
(ISC), described by Herman and O'Sullivan as the "main U.S.
agency of the Moon system in the field of terrorism propaganda."
An international conference organized by ISC and CAUSA was held
in January 1986 in Tel Aviv; speakers included Bo Hi Pak and
Arnaud de Borchgrave, the publisher of the _Washington

These were neither incidental nor marginal connections. CIS
served both as an intelligence conduit from "private" sources
such as the American Security Council and CAUSA, and as an
informal employment agency which provided analysts to the Reagan
administration at the inception of Washington's murderous
counter-insurgency wars in Central America.

As CIS secretary, Larry Pratt was a well-placed "asset" in
his own right, serving as a link between the public
policy/research arms of the organization, the interventionist
wing of the theocratic Christian Right and as an "informal"
public relations spokesperson for Washington's Central American
agenda via Gun Owners of America and the CIS-affiliated, North-
South Institute.

But in order to fully appreciate the sinister nature of the
Council for Inter-American Security, Pratt's involvement and his
broader links to international fascist networks, there is another
organization, also little explored by "mainstream" media, which
deserves our attention, the World Anti-Communist League.

CIS AND WACL: A Marriage Made in Hell

The World Anti-Communist League was founded in 1966 by two
close Asian allies of the United States, Taiwan and South Korea,
and a third organization, the Nazi-dominated, Anti-Bolshevik
Block of Nations (ABN), led by the Ukrainian war criminal
Yaroslav Stetsko.[25] As we have seen above with CIS, Rev.
Moon's Unification network was an instrumental force operating
behind the scenes. Moon assets were closely linked to the Korean
Central Intelligence Agency and Japanese _yakuza_ crime
syndicates, many of whose leaders were convicted war criminals
let off the hook by U.S. occupation forces at the war's end.

ABN was a organizational bridge linking Eastern and Western
European fascists to the intelligence services of Britain and the
United States. Indeed, ABN was formed with U.S. funds and was a
model frequently employed by future anti-communist emigre groups.
Washington's unflagging commitment to the destruction of the
Soviet Union was a continuation of the Third Reich's "Operation
Barbarossa" -- by other means. Christopher Simpson's description
of the group provides a chilling glimpse into the _modus
operandi_ of "containment:"

The ABN was dominated by Ukrainian nationalist veterans of
the OUN/UPA (Organization of Ukrainian
Nationalists/Ukrainian Insurgent Army), and it included a
half dozen open Nazi collaborators on its executive board.
Its newspaper, _ABN Correspondence_, published praises of
wartime genocidalists such as Ustachi _Fuhrer_ Ante Pavelic
and Slovakian quisling Premier Monsignor Jozef Tiso.
Alfreds Berzins, whom the U.S. government once termed a
"fanatic Nazi" responsible for sending innocent people to
concentration camps, was the president of the ABN "People's
Council." Berzins was simultaneously a Latvian leader of
the Assembly of Captive European Nations. His vice-
president at the ABN was the Belorussian quisling Radislaw

If such anti-communist "patriots" were serviceable as
"democrats" abroad, why not at home? In the United States,
WACL's first chairman was Roger Pearson, a white supremacist,
eugenicist and neo-Nazi. Pearson was the editor of Willis
Carto's anti-Semitic rag, _Western Destiny_, the forerunner of
the Liberty Lobby's _Spotlight_ tabloid. By the mid 1970s,
Pearson served on the editorial boards of both the Heritage
Foundation and the American Security Council.[27]

Last Fall, Mr. Pratt addressed a Liberty Lobby testimonial
banquet in honor of the 20th anniversary of _Spotlight_. Though
Larry Pratt has stated publicly he "loathes" groups such as Aryan
Nations and other Nazis, it would appear his oft-quoted
protestations of "innocence" are less than credible given Mr.
Carto's documented history of bigotry and racism.

Pearson, who has described himself as a "mainstream
conservative," boasted to an associate about his alleged role in
hiding Nazi doctor Josef Mengele, the "Angel of Death" who
directed Nazi "medical experiments" at the Auschwitz
extermination camp. With degrees in anthropology and economics,
Pearson is the author several books on eugenics. His most
"popular" are _Eugenics and Race_ and _Race and Civilization_.
He credits Professor Hans F. K. Gunther, a Nazi racial
theoretician, as the inspiration behind the latter volume.[28]

Under Pearson's tutelage, WACL added Western European
chapters that were drawn from the ranks of Nazi war criminals,
Third Reich collaborators, neo-Nazis and right-wing terrorists.
Western European affiliates included the racist British League of
Rights and Italy's Italian Social Movement (MSI). Pino Rauti,
the founder of the outlawed group, _Ordine Nuovo_ was a key WACL
Western European contact.[29] Rauti and countless other Italian
fascists including the war criminal, June Valerio "Black Prince"
Borghese, and key members of the Italian general staff, were
"rehabilitated" Nazi collaborators recruited by the CIA into
NATO's "stay behind" anti-communist terror network, also known as

An off-shoot of_Ordine Nuovo_ was the terrorist group, the
Armed Revolutionary Nuclei (ARN), responsible for the 1980
bombing of the Bologna train station which killed 85 people. The
notorious neo-fascist killer, Stefano delle Chiaie, the ARN
architect of the Bologna massacre, attended the pivotal 1980
conference of the WACL-affiliated, Latin American Anti-Communist
Confederation (CAL), held in Buenos Aires at the height of the
"dirty war" against the Argentine left.[31]

CAL was the organizational expression of a little-known
group of Mexican neo-Nazis, the Tecos or "owls," centered at the
Autonomous University of Guadalajara. Founded by Third Reich
collaborator, Carlos Cuesta Gallardo, the Tecos have created
several anti-communist front groups which include the Mexican
Anti-Communist Federation (FEMACO) and the Inter-American
Confederation of Continental Defense (IACCD). These "men of
action" were drawn from the ranks of the Mexican secret police,
military officers, wealthy landowners and industrialists.[32]

Tecos leader, Raimundo Guerrero, was recruited into the
organization by Gallardo. According to Anderson and Anderson,
the Tecos have close links with the remnants of the Romanian Iron
Guard fascists of Horia Sima in Spain. The group publishes the
anti-Semitic magazine, _Replica_. Serving as a liaison among
right-wing death squads throughout Latin America, the Tecos
joined WACL in 1972. But the Tecos are more than a collection of
aging Nazis; investigative journalist Manuel Buendia, was
assassinated in Mexico City after publishing a three-part series
exposing "Los Tecos" in 1984.[33]

The 1980 CAL conclave was hosted by members of the military
junta and the Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance (AAA) death
squad. Delle Chiaie journeyed to Buenos Aires from Bolivia where
he had forged a murder-for-hire and cocaine smuggling partnership
with CIA asset, Klaus Barbie.[34]

Others who attended the CAL conference included, John
Carbaugh, an aide to North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms and Mario
Sandoval Alarcon, the "godfather" of the Guatemalan death squads.
Sandoval brought along a protege to Buenos Aires, the cashiered
Salvadoran army major, Roberto D'Aubuisson. In 1981, Sandoval
was an invited guest at the Reagan inaugural ball.[35]

Another individual who was an honored guest at the Reagan
_fete_ was Adolpho Cuellar, the chairman of WACL's branch in El
Salvador; that is, until he was _permanently_ "removed from
service" by the FMLN. According to Holly Sklar, "Cuellar is
remembered by former Salvadoran army officers 'as a man who used
to appear at interrogation centers and beg permission to torture
the prisoners.'"[36]

Shortly after the CAL conference, 50 Argentine "military
advisors" and unconventional warfare "specialists" arrived in El
Salvador and began training the military junta in advanced
counter-insurgency "techniques," much as their Israeli
counterparts were doing in Guatemala and Honduras.[37] They were
joining CIA and U.S. Army Special Forces operatives already in
place. Massacres and "disappearances" escalated at an alarming

Such developments were greeted with enthusiasm by CIS and
their fellow-travellers. Board member, Andy Messing, a close
personal friend of Lt. Col. North and the president of the
National Defense Council said at the time, "going to war is [my]
favorite pastime."[39]

When Pearson became too hot to handle he was forced to
resign in 1980, temporarily replaced as WACL's North American
chairman by Elmer D. Greaves, an organizer of the segregationist
Citizens Council.[40] But did Pearson leave in disgrace,
discredited as a fascist, a racist and an apologist for the Nazi
Holocaust? Hardly. Hanging on the wall of Pearson's Washington,
D.C. office is a letter from then President, Ronald Reagan:

You are performing a valuable service in bringing to a wide
audience the work of leading scholars who are supportive of
a free enterprise economy, a firm and consistent foreign
policy and a strong national defense.

Your substantial contributions to promoting and upholding
those ideals and principles that we value at home and abroad
are greatly appreciated.[41]

With Pearson's departure, WACL was in crisis and in danger
of disbanding. It is during this period, that John K. Singlaub
came to the rescue, reorganizing WACL's American chapter.

Retired U.S. Army General and CIS board member, John K.
Singlaub, has a long, bloody history of involvement with the
formulation and execution of U.S. counter-insurgency strategy and
covert operations around the world. A member of the Office of
Strategic Services (OSS) at the end of World War II, Singlaub
moved up the ladder, becoming CIA desk officer for China in 1949
and deputy station chief in Korea during the war. During the
Vietnam war he commanded the Special Operations Group, which
implemented the CIA's Phoenix Operation, responsible for the
cold-blooded murder of some 40,000 Vietnamese and the
imprisonment of hundreds of thousands of other Vietnamese in
"strategic hamlets." Singlaub was appointed head of the U.S
command in South Korea in 1976, but was removed in 1978 when he
publicly disagreed with President Carter's plans to withdraw U.S.

A significant figure, within the national security apparatus
and the far-right, Singlaub was well-placed to serve as a contact
who could network neo-fascist killers, drug peddlers and state-
sanctioned terrorist "assets" employed by the national security
state itself. Herman and O'Sullivan write:

Singlaub was...close to the Reagan White House. From April
1983 until October 1984 he chaired an official Pentagon
panel established to design U.S. policies toward developing
countries. The panel also included Brigadier General Heine
Anderholt, a contributing editor to _Soldier of Fortune_,
and another half dozen extreme right-wing military officers
and academicians. In April 1984, Singlaub met with
President Reagan and National Security Advisor Robert
McFarlane and was named "the chief fund-raising contact" to
the contra army in Central America. With this choice, the
president plucked from the world of the paramilitary/neo-
Nazi fringe a man who had spent six years since his forced
retirement from the army in some of the most powerful and
dangerous organizations on the U.S. and international
extreme right, where his associates included former Nazis,
Nazi collaborators, anti-Semites, leaders of death squads,
and a motley crew of mercenaries. Reagan honored these with
a warm greeting to WACL at its 1984 gathering, asserting
that the organization was playing a "leadership role" in the
"gallant struggle being waged by the true freedom fighters
of our day." Within a year at Bitburg, Reagan would pay his
respects to the Waffen-SS.[43]

It is within this context as well, that Patrick Buchanan,
then Reagan's communications director, echoed calls issued by the
Nazi-linked, Captive Nations Committee (CNC), to abolish the
Justice Department's Office for Special Investigations (OSI),
responsible for prosecuting war criminals still at large. This
should not come as a shock to anyone, since many members of CNC
held dual membership in WACL.

Andy Messing, as well as Howard Phillips, chairman of The
Conservative Caucus and current leader of the United States
Taxpayers Party (USTP), were key figures within WACL's American
branch. Larry Pratt shares Phillips' ideological commitment to
the clerical-fascist doctrine of Christian Reconstructionism;
indeed, Pratt is a national committee member of Phillips' USTP.

Phillips and other American far-rightists, including Black
"pro-life" Republican Party presidential candidate, Alan Keyes,