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(en) US War Crimes in Iraq:::By Nuremberg Standards

From Beezee Evans <bee3xxx@yahoo.com>
Date Thu, 19 Feb 1998 17:55:06 -0800 (PST)



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     A - I N F O S  N E W S  S E R V I C E
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Subject: GULF CRISIS BACKGROUND
*******************************
US WAR CRIMES IN IRAQ:::Use Nuremberg Standards 


                                           PLEASE FORWARD!

Excerpted from my "United States War Crimes During the Persian Gulf
War," published in Nord-Sud XXI, No.1, pages 97-111 (Geneva:1992).
> 	
> 	
> UNITED STATES WAR CRIMES DURING THE PERSIAN GULF WAR
> 
....
> 	  
> The Historical Origins of the War
> 
> 	  I do not have the time in this brief presentation to analyze
> the entire history of illegal U.S. military interventionism into the
> Middle East--especially the Persian Gulf region--and in particular its
> divide-and-conquer (divida et impera) policies.  Suffice it to say
> here that the "immediate cause" of the United States war to destroy
> Iraq and take over the Arab oil fields in the Persian Gulf goes back
> to the 1973 Arab oil boycott of Europe.  The Arab oil states imposed
> the boycott in solidarity with those Arab states that were then
> attempting to reclaim their Lands that had been illegally stolen from
> Them by Israel in 1967.  The Arab oil boycott brought Europe to its
> knees.  Subsequently, Arab oil states were able to increase the price
> of oil to a point of economic fairness that would enable them to
> provide for the basic human needs of their own Peoples.
> 
> 	  But the success of the Arab oil boycott led several prominent
> U.S. government officials in the Nixon administration, and especially
> Henry Kissinger, to publicly threaten that the United States
> government would prepare itself to seize the Arab oil fields in order
> to prevent something like the boycott from ever happening again.  This
> illegal governmental threat was stated openly, publicly, and
> repeatedly during the course of the Nixon administration, the Ford
> administration, the Carter administration, and the Reagan
> administration.  The Bush administration would finally be the ones to
> carry this threat out.  But only after a decade of active
> preparations.
> 
> The Rapid Deployment Force
> 
> 	  During the course of the Carter administration, the United
> States government obtained authorization from Congress to set up, arm,
> equip, and supply the so-called Rapid Deployment Force (RDF), whose
> primary mission was to seize and steal the Arab oil fields of the
> Persian Gulf region.  So the planning and preparations for the U.S.
> war against Iraq go all the way back to the so-called "liberal" Carter
> administration--at the very least.  The United States Foreign Policy
> Establishment consists of liberal imperialists, reactionary
> imperialists, and middle-of-the-road imperialists.  But they all share
> in common a firm belief in America's "Manifest Destiny" to rule the
> world.
> 
> 	  For the next decade, the Pentagon obtained a new generation of
> high-technology conventional weapons possessing massive destructive
> power and lethality; the logistical support network necessary to
> convey a force of 500,000 soldiers over to the Persian Gulf region
> within six months; and base access rights and facilities for that
> purpose throughout Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
> Working in conjunction with its de facto allies in the region such as
> Egypt and Israel, the Pentagon stockpiled enormous quantities of
> weapons, equipment, and supplies in the immediate vicinity of the
> Persian Gulf as a prelude to military intervention.  Hence, the United
> States government had been planning, preparing, and conspiring to
> seize and steal the Persian Gulf oil fields for over a decade.
> 
> United States War Plans Against Iraq
> 
> 	  Sometime after the termination of the Iraq-Iran War in the
> Summer of 1988, the Pentagon proceeded to revise its outstanding war
> plans for U.S. military intervention into the Persian Gulf region in
> order to destroy Iraq.  Defendant Schwarzkopf was put in charge of
> this revision.  For example, in early 1990, Defendant Schwarzkopf
> informed the Senate Armed Services Committee of this new military
> strategy in the Gulf allegedly designed to protect U.S. access to and
> control over Gulf oil in the event of regional conflicts.  In October
> 1990, Defendant Powell referred to the new military plan developed in
> 1989.  After the war, Defendant Schwarzkopf referred to eighteen
> months of planning for the campaign.
> 
> 	  Sometime in late 1989 or early 1990, the Pentagon's war plan
> for destroying Iraq and stealing Persian Gulf oil fields was put into
> motion.  At that time, Defendant Schwarzkopf was named the Commander
> of the so-called U.S. Central Command--which was the re-named version
> of the Rapid Deployment Force--for the purpose of carrying out the war
> plan that he had personally developed and supervised.  During January
> of 1990, massive quantities of United States weapons, equipment, and
> supplies were sent to Saudi Arabia in order to prepare for the war
> against Iraq.
> 
> 	  Pursuant to this war plan, Defendant Webster and the CIA
> assisted and directed Kuwait in its actions of violating OPEC oil
> production agreements to undercut the price of oil for the purpose of
> debilitating Iraq's economy; in extracting excessive and illegal
> amounts of oil from pools it shared with Iraq; in demanding immediate
> repayment of loans Kuwait had made to Iraq during the Iraq-Iran War;
> and in breaking off negotiations with Iraq over these disputes.  The
> Defendants intended to provoke Iraq into aggressive military actions
> against Kuwait that they knew could be used to justify U.S. military
> intervention into the Persian Gulf for the purpose of destroying Iraq
> and taking over Arab oil fields.
> 
> The U.S. "Green Light" to Invade Kuwait
> 
> 	  The Defendants showed absolutely no opposition to Iraq's
> increasing threats against Kuwait.  Indeed, when Saddam Hussein
> requested U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie to explain State Department
> testimony in Congress about Iraq's threats against Kuwait, she assured
> him that the United States considered the dispute to be a regional
> concern, and that it would not intervene militarily.  In other words,
> the United States government gave Saddam Hussein what amounted to a
> "green light" to invade Kuwait.
> 
> 	  This reprehensible behavior was similar to that of the Carter
> administration during September of 1980, when United States government
> officials gave Saddam Hussein the "green light" to invade Iran and
> thus commence the tragic Iraq-Iran War.  A decade later, Saddam
> Hussein simply surmised that he had been given yet another "green
> light" by the United States government to commit overt aggression
> against surrounding states.  Only this time, the Defendants knowingly
> intended to lead Iraq into a provocation that could be used to justify
> intervention and warfare by United States military forces for the real
> purpose of destroying Iraq as a military power and seizing Arab oil
> fields in the Persian Gulf.
> 
> Bush Is the Bigger War Criminal
> 
> 	  On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait without
> significant resistance.  The Kuwaiti government itself estimated that
> approximately 300 people were killed as a result of Iraq's invasion of
> Kuwait, and a few hundred more as a result of the military occupation.
> By comparison, Defendant Bush's invasion of Panama in December of 1989
> took between 2,000 and 4,000 Panamanian lives, and the United States
> government is still covering up the actual death toll.  Defendant Bush
> killed more innocent people in Panama than Saddam Hussein did in
> Kuwait.
> 
> 	  Defendant Bush's invasion of Panama was even more illegal,
> reprehensible, and criminal than Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait.
> The world must never forget that the first step in the construction of
> Bush's "New World Order" was his illegal invasion of Panama and the
> murder of thousands of completely innocent Panamanian civilians.
> America's self-anointed policeman in the Persian Gulf had the blood of
> the Panamanian People on his hands.
> 
> Bush's Perversion of the Constitution
> 
> 	  Pursuant to the Pentagon's war plan for destroying Iraq and
> stealing Persian Gulf oil fields--and without consultation or
> communication with Congress--Defendant Bush initially ordered 40,000
> U.S. military personnel into the Persian Gulf region during the first
> week of August 1990.  He lied to the American People and Congress when
> he stated that his acts were purely defensive.  Right from the very
> outset of this crisis--and even beforehand--Defendant Bush fully
> intended to go to war against Iraq and to seize the Arab oil fields in
> the Persian Gulf.  Defendant Bush deliberately misled, deceived,
> concealed and made false representations to the Congress to prevent
> its free deliberation and informed exercise of legislative power.
> 
> 	  Defendant Bush intentionally usurped Congressional power,
> ignored its authority, and failed and refused to consult with the
> Congress.  He individually ordered a naval blockade against
> Iraq--itself an act of war--without approval by Congress or the U.N.
> Security Council.  Defendant Bush waited until after the November 1990
> elections to publicly announce his earlier order sending more than
> 200,000 additional military personnel to the Persian Gulf for
> offensive purposes without seeking the approval of Congress.  Pursuant
> to the Pentagon's war plan, Defendant Bush switched U.S. forces from a
> defensive position and capability to an offensive capacity for
> aggression against Iraq without consultation with, and contrary to
> assurances given to, Congress and the American People.
> 
> 	  On the very eve of the war, Defendant Bush then strong-armed
> legislation through Congress that approved enforcement of U.N.
> resolutions vesting absolute discretion in any nation, providing no
> guidelines, and requiring no reporting to the United Nations.
> Defendant Bush knew full well that he intended to destroy the armed
> forces and civilian infrastructure of Iraq.  Those acts were
> undertaken to enable him to commit a Nuremberg Crime Against Peace and
> war crimes.  This conduct violated the Constitution and Laws of the
> United States and especially the War Powers Clause found in Article 1,
> Section 8 of the Constitution, the U.S. War Powers Act of 1973, 87
> Stat. 555, and the United Nations Charter, which is the "Supreme Law
> of the Land" under Article 6 of the Constitution.  For this reason
> alone, Defendant Bush and his co-conspirators committed "High Crimes
> and Misdemeanors" that warrant their impeachment, conviction, removal
> from office, and criminal prosecution.
> 
> Bush's Mad Rush to War	
> 
> 	  While concealing his true intentions, Bush continued the
> military buildup of U.S. forces from August into January 1991 for the
> purpose of attacking and destroying Iraq.  Bush pressed the military
> to expedite preparations and to commence the war against Iraq before
> military conditions were optimum for domestic political purposes so
> that the war would not interfere with his presidential reelection
> campaign.  Indeed, the entire timing, conduct and duration of the war
> were planned so as to promote Defendant Bush's reelection prospects.
> But as a direct result of Defendant Bush's mad rush to war, United
> States military personnel suffered needless casualties.  Defendant
> Bush has still lied and covered up to the American People and Congress
> the true nature and extent of U.S. casualties during the Persian Gulf
> War.
> 
> Bush Corrupted the United Nations
> 
> 	  Defendant Bush repeatedly coerced the members of the United
> Nations Security Council into adopting an unprecedented series of
> resolutions that culminated in his securing authority for any nation
> to use "all necessary means" to enforce these resolutions.  To secure
> these votes in the Security Council, Defendant Bush paid
> multi-billion-dollar bribes; offered arms for regional wars;
> threatened and carried out economic retaliation; illegally forgave
> multi-billion-dollar loans; offered diplomatic relations despite human
> rights violations; and in other ways corruptly exacted votes.  This
> illegal activity subverted and perverted the very Purposes and
> Principles of the United Nations Charter itself found in articles 1
> and 2 thereof.
> 
> Bush Circumvented and Violated Chapter VI of the United Nations
> Charter
> 
> 	  In his mad rush to war, Defendant Bush caused the United
> Nations to completely bypass Chapter VI of the U.N. Charter that
> mandates the pacific settlement of international disputes.  Defendant
> Bush consistently rejected and ridiculed all of Iraq's efforts to
> negotiate a peaceful resolution of the dispute.  Defendant Bush
> proudly boasted that there would be no negotiation, no compromise, no
> face-saving, etc.
> 
> 	  Defendant Bush's successful attempt to subvert every effort
> for negotiating a peaceful resolution of this dispute violated the
> solemn obligation mandating the peaceful resolution of international
> disputes found in article 2, paragraph 3 of the United Nations
> Charter; in article 33, paragraph 1 of the United Nations Charter; and
> in article 2 of the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928.  Just like the Nazi
> war criminals before him, Defendant Bush pursued recourse to war as an
> instrument of his national policy and for the solution of
> international controversies in violation of article 1 of the
> Kellogg-Briand Pact.  Just as the Nazi war criminals did by invading
> Poland in September of 1939, these Defendants perpetrated a Nuremberg
> Crime Against Peace in their decision to go to war against Iraq and to
> seize and steal the oil resources of the Persian Gulf.
> 
> The Conduct of the War Itself
> 
> 	  Obviously, in the brief space that has been allotted to me,
> there is no way that I could adequately describe all of the atrocities
> and war crimes that were committed by these Defendants and their
> Agents during the course of their actual conduct of military
> hostilities against the People and State of Iraq.  These matters have
> been covered in great detail during the course of the public
> investigations and hearings conducted around the world by the
> Commission during the past year.  The results of this work will be
> presented to the members of the International War Crimes Tribunal for
> their consideration and adjudication.  Nonetheless, I will provide you
> here with a succinct account of the major categories of war crimes
> committed by these Defendants during the course of their criminal war
> against Iraq.
> 
> Bush Ordered the Destruction of Facilities Essential to Civilian Life
> and Economic Productivity Throughout Iraq.
> 
> 	  Systematic aerial and missile bombardment of Iraq was ordered
> to begin at 6:30 p.m. E.S.T. January 16, 1991, in order to be reported
> on prime time TV.  The bombing continued for 42 days.  It met no
> resistance from Iraqi aircraft and no effective anti-aircraft or
> anti-missile ground fire.  Iraq was basically defenseless.
> 
> 	  Most of the targets were civilian facilities.  The United
> States intentionally bombed and destroyed centers for civilian life,
> commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques,
> churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private
> vehicles and civilian government offices.  In aerial attacks,
> including strafing, over cities, towns, the countryside and highways,
> United States aircraft bombed and strafed indiscriminately.  The
> purpose of these attacks was to destroy life and property, and
> generally to terrorize the civilian population of Iraq.  The net
> effect was the summary execution and corporal punishment
> indiscriminately of men, women and children, young and old, rich and
> poor, of all nationalities and religions.
> 
> 	  As a direct result of this bombing campaign against civilian
> life, at least 25,000 men, women and children were killed.  The Red
> Crescent Society of Jordan estimated 113,000 civilian dead, 60% of
> them children, the week before the end of the war.  According to the
> Nuremberg Charter, this "wanton destruction of cities, towns, or
> villages" is a Nuremberg War Crime.
> 
> 	  The intention and effort of this bombing campaign against
> civilian life and facilities was to systematically destroy Iraq's
> infrastructure leaving it in a pre-industrial condition.  The U.S.
> assault left Iraq in near apocalyptic conditions as reported by the
> first United Nations observers after the war.  As a direct,
> intentional and foreseeable result of this anti-civilian destruction,
> over one hundred thousand people have died after the war from
> dehydration, dysentery, diseases, and malnutrition caused by impure
> water, inability to obtain effective medical assistance and
> debilitation from hunger, shock, cold and stress.  More will die until
> potable water, sanitary living conditions, adequate food supplies and
> other necessities are provided.  Yet Defendant Bush continues to
> impose punitive economic sanctions against the People of Iraq in order
> to prevent this from happening.
> 
> The United States Intentionally Bombed and Destroyed Defenseless Iraqi
> Military Personnel; Used Excessive Force; Killed Soldiers Seeking to
> Surrender and in Disorganized Individual Flight, Often Unarmed and Far
> from Any Combat Zones; Randomly and Wantonly Killed Iraqi Soldiers;
> and Destroyed Material After the Cease-Fire.
> 
> 	  In the first hours of the aerial and missile bombardment, the
> United States destroyed most military communications and began the
> systematic killing of Iraqi soldiers who were incapable of defense or
> escape, and the destruction of military equipment.  The U.S. bombing
> campaign killed tens of thousands of defenseless soldiers, cut off
> from most of their food, water and other supplies, and left them in
> desperate and helpless disarray.  Defendant Schwarzkopf placed Iraqi
> military casualties at over 100,000.  Large numbers of these soldiers
> were "out of combat" and therefore not legitimate targets for military
> attack.
> 
> 	  When it was determined that the civilian economy and the
> military were sufficiently destroyed, the U.S. ground forces moved
> into Kuwait and Iraq attacking disoriented, disorganized, fleeing
> Iraqi forces wherever they could be found, killing thousands more and
> destroying any equipment found.  In one particularly shocking
> maneuver, thousands of Iraqi soldiers were needlessly and illegally
> buried alive.  This wholesale slaughter of Iraqi soldiers continued
> even after and in violation of the so-called cease-fire.
> 
> 	  The Defendants' intention was not to remove Iraq's presence
> from Kuwait.  Rather, their intention was to destroy Iraq.  The
> disproportion in death and destruction inflicted on a defenseless
> enemy exceeded 1000 to one.  The Defendants conducted this genocidal
> war against the Male Population of Iraq for the express purpose of
> making sure that Iraq could not raise a substantial military force for
> at least another generation.
> 
> The United States Used Prohibited Weapons Capable of Mass Destruction
> and Inflicting Indiscriminate Death and Unnecessary Suffering Against
> Both Military and Civilian Targets.
> 
> 	  Fuel air explosives were used against troops in place,
> civilian areas, oil fields and fleeing civilians and soldiers on two
> stretches of highway between Kuwait and Iraq.  One seven mile stretch
> called the "Highway of Death" was littered with hundreds of vehicles
> and thousands of dead.  All were fleeing to Iraq for their lives.
> Thousands were civilians of all ages, including Kuwaitis, Iraqis,
> Palestinians, Jordanians and other nationalities.
> 
> 	  Napalm was used against civilians and military personnel, as
> well as to start fires.  Oil well fires in both Iraq and Kuwait were
> intentionally started by U.S. aircraft dropping napalm and other heat
> intensive devices.
> 
> 	  Cluster bombs and anti-personnel fragmentation bombs were used
> in Basra, and other cities and towns, against the civilian convoys of
> fleeing vehicles and against military units.
> 
> 	  "Superbombs" were dropped on hardened shelters with the
> intention of assassinating Iraqi President Saddam Hussein--a war crime
> in its own right.
> 
> The United States Intentionally Attacked Installations in Iraq
> Containing Dangerous Substances and Forces in Violation of Article 56
> of Geneva Protocol I of 1977.
> 
> 	  The U.S. intentionally bombed alleged nuclear sites, chemical
> plants, dams and other dangerous forces.  The U.S. knew such attacks
> could cause the release of dangerous forces from such installations
> and consequently severe losses among the civilian population.  While
> some civilians were killed in such attacks, there are no reported
> cases of consequent severe losses.  Presumably, lethal nuclear
> materials, and dangerous chemical and biological warfare substances,
> were not present at the sites bombed.
> 
> The United States Waged War on the Environment.
> 
> 	  Before the war started, the Pentagon had developed computer
> models that accurately predicted the environmental catastrophe that
> would occur should the United States go to war against Iraq.  These
> Defendants went to war anyway knowing full well what the consequences
> of such an environmental disaster would be.  Attacks by U.S. aircraft
> caused much if not all of the worst oil spills in the Gulf.  Aircraft
> and helicopters dropped napalm and fuel-air explosives on oil wells,
> storage tanks and refineries, causing oil fires throughout Iraq and
> many, if not most, of the oil well fires in Iraq and Kuwait.
> 
> Defendant Bush Encouraged and Aided Shiite Muslims and Kurds to Rebel
> Against the Government of Iraq Causing Fratricidal Violence,
> Emigration, Exposure, Hunger and Sickness and Thousands of Deaths.
> After the Rebellion Failed, the U.S. Invaded and Occupied Parts of
> Iraq Without Lawful Authority in Order to Increase Division and
> Hostilities Within Iraq.
> 
> 	  Without authority from the U.S. Congress or the United
> Nations, Defendant Bush encouraged and aided rebellion against Iraq,
> failed to protect the warring parties, encouraged mass migration of
> whole populations placing them in jeopardy from the elements, hunger
> and disease.  After much suffering and many deaths, Defendant Bush
> then without authority used U.S. military forces to distribute aid at
> and near the Turkish border, ignoring the often greater suffering
> among refugees in Iran.  He then arbitrarily set up bantu-like
> settlements for Kurds in Iraq and demanded Iraq to pay for U.S. costs.
> When Kurds chose to return to their homes in Iraq, he moved U.S.
> troops further into northern Iraq against the will of the government
> and without any legal authority to do so.  As Defendant Baker
> correctly put it when he visited the area, these atrocities
> constituted a Nuremberg "crime against humanity."
> 
> Defendant Bush Intentionally Deprived the Iraqi People of Essential
> Medicines, Potable Water, Food and Other Necessities.
> 
> 	  A major component of the assault on Iraq was the systematic
> deprivation of essential human needs and services, to terrorize and
> break the will of the Iraqi People, to destroy their economic
> capability, and to reduce their numbers and weaken their health.
> Towards those ends, the Defendants:
> 
> 		 	--imposed and enforced embargoes preventing the
> shipment of needed medicines, water purifiers, infant milk formula,
> food and other supplies;
>  
> 		 	--froze funds of Iraq and forced other nations
> to do so, depriving Iraq of the ability to purchase needed medicines,
> food and other supplies;
>  
> 		 	--prevented international organizations,
> governments and relief agencies from providing needed supplies and
> obtaining information concerning such needs;
>  
> 		 	--failed to assist or meet urgent needs of huge
> refugee populations and interfered with efforts of others to do so,
> etc.
>  
> As a direct result of these cruel and inhuman acts, thousands of
> people died, many more suffered illnesses and permanent injury.  For
> these actions, the Defendants are guilty of Nuremberg Crimes Against
> Humanity and the Crime of Genocide as recognized by international law
> and U.S. domestic law.
> 
> Defendant Bush, Having Destroyed Iraq's Economic Base, Demands
> Reparations Which Will Permanently Impoverish Iraq and Threaten Its
> People with Famine and Epidemic.
> 
>  	  Defendant Bush seeks to force Iraq to pay for damages to
> Kuwait largely caused by the U.S. and even to pay U.S. costs for its
> violation of Iraqi sovereignty in occupying northern Iraq to further
> manipulate the Kurdish population there.  Such reparations are
> neo-colonial means of expropriating Iraq's oil, natural resources, and
> human labor.  Meanwhile, the United States government dominates and
> controls the respective governments and oil resources of Kuwait, Saudi
> Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar.
>  
>  	  The United States government has successfully carried out its
> longstanding threat and war plan to seize and steal the oil resources
> of the Persian Gulf for its own benefit.  The United States now
> directly controls the natural energy resources that fuel the economies
> of Europe and Japan.  Acting with their de facto allies in Israel and
> Great Britain, the Defendants are today consolidating their control
> over the entire Middle East in a blatant bid to establish worldwide
> hegemony.
>  
> Bush's "New World Order"
> 
>  	  Today, the government in the United States of America
> constitutes an international criminal conspiracy under the Nuremberg
> Charter, Judgment and Principles, that is legally identical to the
> Nazi government in World War II Germany.  The Defendants' wanton
> extermination of approximately 250,000 People in Iraq provides
> definitive proof of the validity of this Nuremberg Proposition for the
> entire world to see.  Indeed, Defendant Bush's so-called New World
> Order sounds and looks strikingly similar to the New Order proclaimed
> by Adolph Hitler over fifty years ago.  You do not build a real New
> World Order with stealth bombers, Abrams tanks, and tomahawk cruise
> missiles.  For their own good and the good of all humanity, the
> American People must condemn and repudiate Defendant Bush and his
> grotesque vision of a New World Order that is constructed upon
> warfare, bloodshed, violence and criminality....
....
________________________________________________________
Ditto Clinton et al. FAB.







==
 "The world is now too dangerous for anything less than Utopia."=-=-=-=-=Buckminster Fuller=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
+MUTANEX+ <http://www.freeyellow.com/members2/sugarthorn>
 *******{{{EarthMotherShip}}}<http://www.earthwisdom.com>
 "People travel to wonder at the height of mountains,at the huge waves of the sea, at the vast compass of the ocean... and they pass by themselves without wondering." St.Augustine



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