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(en) Canada, Collectif Emma Goldman - Internationalism: Anarchism and Esperanto (ca, de, it, fr, pt)[machine translation]

Date Sat, 27 Mar 2021 10:50:38 +0300

Translation by us of a text written by Xavi Alcalde and published in the newspaper Fifth Estate # 400 of spring 2018. The anarchist and Esperantist Eduardo Vivancos in question unfortunately left us on December 30, 2020. ---- "Paroli Esperanton estis iam esenca parto de anarkiismo". ---- (There was a time when speaking Esperanto was an integral part of being an anarchist.) ---- When Eduardo Vivancos , a 97-year-old man born in Barcelona, walks the streets of Toronto, where he has lived as an exile ever since 1954, he never meets anyone speaking Esperanto. ---- Nonetheless, when he began to learn the language in June 1937, in the midst of the Spanish Civil War and the Revolution, he believed it to be a component that goes without saying in the libertarian world.

It was.

At that time, in cities such as Barcelona and Valencia, there were Esperanto courses and groups in all the athenaeums (the ateneos , anarchist social centers). The CNT ( Confederación Nacional del Trabajo ), the anarcho-syndicalist union, published a newspaper, Nia Bulteno (Our Bulletin), which included articles in this language. Each of the other significant groups in Spain also had their publications in Esperanto. The anti-Stalinist Marxist organization, the POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista ), whose author George Orwell had joined the militias, also published a newspaper in Esperanto. The Catalan government's Propaganda Commissioner, Aume Miravitlles, later explained that they used Esperanto in their official documents in order to join international anarchists.

Esperanto was created in 1887 by Doctor Louis-Lazare Zamenhof in Bialystok, Poland. His idea was to develop an easy-to-learn international auxiliary language to promote communication between people from different countries. It was designed without grammatical irregularities and with a particularly clear phoneme-grapheme (sound-letter) correspondence.

The first vocabulary words and sounds of Esperanto were drawn from European languages (mostly Romance, minority Germanic and with a small portion of Slavic languages). For example, demokratio and revolucio could be understood intuitively by speakers of several European languages. Some words from other language families have been added over the years.

However, Esperanto word construction is typical in the Japanese and Korean languages, as well as in several non-European languages. This feature is rare among European languages (with a few exceptions, see Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian).

The flexibility in the order of words in Esperanto also allows its speakers and writers of both European and non-European languages to use the way of speaking to which they are accustomed and to use it. be easily understood or understood in this international language. So while its initial vocabulary was unmistakably European in nature, other aspects of the language allowed Esperanto to have a truly international audience reaching over 2 million people at different times.

Zamenhof hoped to participate in the development of human brotherhood through direct communication between people from different places.

Esperanto, he believed, would benefit those interested in interacting with others internationally for various reasons and, eventually, bringing about world peace. This language was supported by several anarchists, including Tolstoy and Malatesta.

By the turn of the 20th century, there were hundreds of Esperantist groups in all corners of the world, although most were located in Europe and the Americas. The language was taught in modern anarchist schools in the United States.

World War I dealt a major blow to the utopian ideals of the Esperantist movement, which was vowed to take its place and make things of the past nations and nationalism. Nevertheless, the language experienced a resurgence of interest during the interwar period. Many among the workers' movement of the 1920s embraced the new language as its participants promoted it as a necessary tool to unite proletarians around the world.

Many communists of this time supported the use of the language. To cope with the difficulties experienced in communication during the 2nd Congress of the 3rd International in Moscow in 1920, one of the participants, the Spanish anarcho-unionist Angel Pestaña, suggested that Esperanto be used. He promoted it as a worker Latin, as a means of facilitating communication within the association.

In some countries, such as Japan and China, most Esperantist pioneers were anarchists, and the language helped them communicate directly with anarchists in Europe and the Americas.

But the defenders of Esperanto lived through the persecution and many were executed under the Nazi regimes in Germany and the Stalinist regimes in the Soviet Union because of the ideas they promoted and which were considered subversive by the government. state.

However, to a large extent, Zamenhof's internationalist and pacifist ideals were diffused to utopian revolutionaries like the Spanish anarchists of the 1930s, who carried "a new world in their hearts."

In France, following the Second World War, the Spanish exiles of Franco's Spain created an international association of Esperanto anarchists. Their official bulletin was called Senstatano(Stateless) and was published entirely in Esperanto. Among its contributors were famous Asian anarchists like Taiji Yamaga and Lu Chien Bo .

In this age of global communications, there is renewed interest in Esperanto, especially among anarchists in different parts of the world, although it is unclear how many people are experienced enough to use it. Some mobile language learning apps have started offering Esperanto lessons and at least one million people have signed up.

Those who learn Esperanto via the internet can become familiar and familiar with groups like Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda(SAT), The Anational World Association. Its participants include anarchists and other activists supporting revolutionary social change.

At their last congress, in Seoul, in July and August 2017, the participants of the SAT from different countries were able to witness directly on the spot the South Korean protests which were then underway, called "Candle Revolution". .

It is probable that this active will to join together inherent in Esperanto explains its survival for 130 years despite the great changes in political organizations, dictatorships and persecutions. From this perspective, it has potential that should not be underestimated. Very often, learning and practicing the language itself is a revolutionary act.

If you happened to meet the aging, but still committed anarchist Eduardo Vivancos in Toronto, you should greet him like this: Hi, kompano. Paroli Esperanton estis iam esenca parto de anarkiismo . (Hi companion. Esperanto is still alive and well, as is the anarchist ideal.)

There you go, that's all I had to write.

Xavi alcade

Xavi Alcalde is a researcher from Barcelona, Spain. He is currently writing a biography of Eduardo Vivancos, an anarchist, Esperantist and Spanish Revolution and Civil War veteran who currently lives in Toronto.

Eduardo Vivancos
A universal language

Originally published in the Fifth Estate newspaper .

Translation of the Emma Goldman Collective Blog

by Collectif Emma Goldman

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