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(en) France, UCL AL #312 - Special file Paris 1871, The international posterity of the idea of "commune" (ca, de, it, fr, pt)[machine translation]

Date Sun, 21 Mar 2021 08:17:02 +0200


If the Paris Commune could be seen as the "daughter of the International", it is also the "mother" of new "communes" ranging from Russia in 1917 to Oaxaca and Rojava. ---- The ingredients are always more or less the same: a repression that isolates a territory ; a state that has become the declared enemy of its own population ; the memory of past resistances which inflames consciences ; the opportunity, too good, to take charge, to experience utopia, then to disseminate ... Assumed isolation, desired transformation, positive contagion. ---- In France, now, the term "commune" is sometimes used to name the territories liberated during revolutionary movements. Thus of the "Municipality of Strandja" in 1903, in the Ottoman Empire, of the "Municipality of Shinmin" in 1929-1931, in China[1], or of the "Municipality of Oaxaca", in 2006 in Mexico[2].

But these are appellations attributed a posteriori. This is not the case, on the other hand, with the Russian kommuna, an "autonomous political body" of poor peasants[3]which, in 1917-1919, wanted to lead the social revolution in the Russian countryside. With the kommuna, it is not only a question of dividing up the land of the lord, but of exploiting them in common. A dynamic to which both the Makhnovists and the Bolsheviks will turn their backs.

The idea is that "the commune" can be both a place of experimentation and a federalist method of propagation. As such, it becomes an essential instrument of the libertarian panoply of social transformation.

This is the whole idea behind the Zapatista municipalities, firmly anchored in a territory and animated by "assemblies of good government"[4]. This is again the idea that we find in democratic confederalism, in Syrian Kurdistan, whose basic unit is the komin ("commune")[5].

The legacy of 1871 is also in the Zadist project, which forces any act of resistance to link up with the population and local struggles, where squatters are transformed into peasants and peasants in the long term. Where we also find old practices linked to the "commons".

Sometimes when state violence is too strong, as in the case of "Gwangjiu Township" in Korea[6], the desire to form a counterexample to the intolerable and to inspire future generations leads to action, even desperate.

We will not be mistaken: if the Paris Commune has suffered attempts at recovery, sometimes even by the extreme right, it continues to teach us that movements for social transformation cannot be artificialized from above, nor be constrained. by theory alone, much less left to the avant-garde cacophony, partidaire.

They suppose, on the other hand, to position themselves "at the bottom, to the left" as the Zapatistas say, in a careful listening and respectful of the local, with a fierce desire to overturn the model which alienates us, in the search for alliances step by step. , and with autonomy as a horizon.

Cuervo (UCL Marseille)

Illustration: Les garibaldiens, Italian volunteer fighters, from Bertall, Les Communeux. Types, characters, costumes, Plon, 1880.

Validate

[1] "1929: The anti-colonial struggle of the Korean anarchists" , Alternative libertaire , September 2019.

[2] "Oaxaca: popular power against state power" , Alternative libertaire , December 2006.

[3] "1917-1919: the municipalities in the Russian Revolution", Alternative libertaire , December 2019.

[4] Everything for everyone ! The Zapatista Experience , Guillaume Goutte, Libertalia, 2014.

[5] "Yes, the people can change things (the experience of Rojava)" , Alternative libertaire , November 2014.

[6] "1980: South Korean dictatorship challenged in Gwangju" , Alternative libertaire , June 2020.

https://www.unioncommunistelibertaire.org/?La-posterite-internationale-de-l-idee-de-commune
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