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(en) grupo via libre: Analysis of the situation in Latin America for 2021 (ca, de, it, fr, pt)[machine translation]

Date Mon, 1 Mar 2021 10:44:01 +0200


This text presents a reflection on the socio-political situation in Latin America and the Caribbean for the beginning of the year 2021. To this end, some general trends in public health, economy and politics in the region are presented first, to to deal secondly with the analysis of the local reality of the majority of States and territories of the subcontinent and finish in third place, with the analysis of some trends in Latin American popular movements and struggles. ---- General trends ---- The regional situation was fundamentally marked, like the entire global situation, by the new Coronavirus pandemic and the historical crisis that this entailed. With the first reported case of SAR-COVID-2 in Brazil on February 26 and the first quarantine measures being taken in March, the region became by October the area of the world with the most deaths from the disease, being exceeded by Europe only at the end of the year. According to the Google database, 15,680,323 confirmed cases of coronavirus were presented on the continent until December 31, 2020, noting a huge under-registry, with 117,440 daily cases, as well as the unfortunate figure of 508,948 people killed by the disease and 2,772 deaths per day[1].

In total, the 5 most populated countries in the region exceeded one million cases with the natural predominance of Brazil, while 8 regions exceeded 200,000 and 16 territories exceeded 100,000 cases. In this direction, 2 states, Brazil and Mexico exceeded 100,000 deaths, with Brazil once again at the limit of the statistic with 194,949 deaths, 3 more exceeded 30 thousand deaths with the cases of Colombia, Argentina and Peru and 7 territories in total, more than 10 thousand deaths were registered. Critical overflow situations of the hospital system occurred in Brazil and Ecuador in the first half of the year, which were repeated in Mexico, Colombia and Peru in the second. Notable was the rapid deterioration of Argentina after the reopening, as well as the bad situations in Panama and Guatemala according to the proportions. In general, against expectations in terms of health infrastructure, Central America and the Caribbean performed notably better than their neighbors. Paradigmatic cases of success were presented in Nicaragua despite government disorientation, Uruguay, Guyana and Suriname, all with fewer than 200 registered deaths.

The measures of social isolation generally implemented late, uncoordinated, without case tracking and without social guarantees by the States, added to the global drop in production, consumption and investment, generated in a region recently marked by a a situation of weak growth, a deep economic crisis, greater than the great recession of 2008-2009 and even the great depression of 1929, with an estimated fall of between -8.1% and -7.4% in GDP in the region, according to the IMF. The sudden depression led to a large increase in the deficit and public debt in the economies of the sub-continent, which were also affected by the historical drop in demand for raw materials. Likewise, the region was the most affected in the world by unemployment, which was already high and had been growing since before the crisis,

In turn, the region concentrates 4 of the countries in the world with the highest inflation in the world at the head of Venezuela, and Suriname, Argentina and Haiti with many more distances. As against the face of this phenomenon, there was a situation of economic decline and negative inflation in Puerto Rico and Panama. Likewise, in a panorama of decreased income and substantial increase in spending, there was a general worsening of the debt that would reach 81.6% of GDP in the region according to the IMF. The largest cases of foreign indebtedness are Belize, Brazil, Argentina and El Salvador, although the most severe debt crises occur in places such as Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina and Suriname, with the last two countries agreeing to renegotiations of their debts with international banking.

In demographic terms, there were massive returns of migrants residing in the United States, Europe and the rich countries of the region, with the especially critical cases of Haitian migrants residing in the Dominican Republic and Venezuelans in Andean South America. On the other hand, the combined impact of hurricanes Eta and Iota, and to a lesser extent Nana in Central America and the Caribbean, strongly affected impoverished rural populations of the Caribbean, which stimulated new migratory caravans of Honduran majority with Salvadoran and Cuban members, who were repressed by the security forces of Guatemala and Mexico.

In the political arena, the trend towards the right shift continued in key areas that previously featured as progressive strengths such as the Dominican Republic, as well as Suriname, and to a lesser extent in Guyana. However, a notable and apparently growing counter-trend towards the left was presented with the strategic electoral victory in Bolivia, as well as in Belize and in a more diffuse way in Panama. 2020 closes with a situation of 10 states under progressive administration and 15 under conservative administrations, although the social liberal governments of Costa Rica and Ecuador in fact manage economic and political agendas with strongly conservative elements. Bolsonaro's criminal incompetence in the face of the crisis weakened the conservative leadership of the continent,

Deep political crises were experienced in the region in countries such as Peru, where two governments fell, El Salvador, where a failed auto coup occurred, and Guatemala, where this situation arose but did not materialize. To a lesser extent, there are also deep electoral crises, with postponed elections, crossed accusations of fraud and long-delayed results, in the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Suriname and Bolivia. Likewise, administrations of unelected interim governments were presented in Puerto Rico and Bolivia, which was ending the year in both countries. At the same time, a significant process of constitutional change is projected in Chile, pressured by popular mobilization and the long and failed constituent assembly in Venezuela, which dissolves in silence. In the latter country,

Locally

In Mexico, the management of the politician Andes Manuel López Obrador of the leftist Movement for National Renewal (MORENA) continues. With its legislative majority, the government has advanced its security policy based on the National Guard with little success, various projects around its welfare state proposal and various activities of its national infrastructure plan, while maintaining its policy of repression. outsourced against Central American migrants. The economy that came from a year of stagnation, experienced the strong coronavirus crisis with a drop of -8% in GDP, despite the government's reluctance to impose production closures. There were strikes by press workers and conflicts by auto workers over salary increases, as well as actions by the feminist movement,

In Guatemala, the government of the politician Alejandro Giammattei of the right-wing Vamos party and a conservative electoral coalition takes office. The government of the former business consultant and director of prisons Giammattei, elected in the controversial presidential elections of 2019, begins his administration with the promise of a strong hand and build a "wall of opportunities" to prevent migration, which has not prevented it from intensifying by US pressure its repressive activity against migrants. The country's situation was marked by the political crisis that opened in November, after the approval of the 2021 budget that included important social cuts, the emergence of popular protest that led to the burning of parliament, the suspension of the law and the proposal launched by the resigning vice president of the government, that did not materialize. In the midst of the economic crisis generated by the pandemic in which there was a -2% drop in GDP, the country's agriculture contracted, and there were impacts by earthquakes, landslides and the rainy season. In addition to the day against the budget cut, there were popular protests demanding social assistance.

In Belize there was a left turn with the inauguration of the new government of businessman Johnny Briceño of the social liberal United Popular Party (PUP) after winning widely in the general elections. After three periods of conservative government, the new administration outlines its Belize Plan for economic reactivation, after receiving a country with some impact from the last hurricane season, as well as the temporary closure of the free trade zone, while maintaining the traditional border tensions with Guatemala. The country's economy is experiencing a critical situation, being the most indebted in the sub-continent and receiving the impact of the world crisis with a decrease of -13.5% of GDP.

In El Salvador under the government of businessman Nayib Bukele of the right-wing Great Alliance for National Unity, a major political crisis unfolds after Bukele's attempted coup d'état on February 9, when his minority government in the legislature, Congress intervened militarily to force its approval of its policy of strengthening the security forces. In the midst of an economic crisis that implied an estimated decrease of -8.6% of GDP, the millennial president's government maintained its policies of denial of the water crisis at the beginning of the year and of brutal repression and violation of human rights in prisons from the country. During the year, there were worker protests against the massive layoffs in the maquila industry,

In Honduras, the second term of the authoritarian government of the evangelical politician Juan Orlando Hernández of the conservative National Party of Honduras (PNH) continues. The government, heir to the coup d'état and electoral fraud, maintains its agenda of security and zero tolerance for crime, with limited results, as well as its policy of cultural conservatism that seeks to give constitutional status to the prohibition of abortion. The country's economic crisis due to the pandemic that meant a decrease of -8% of GDP, triggered the external debt and a deep crisis of mass educational dropout. A nurses' strike developed in January for salary readjustment, while popular protests against the government and corruption were held down by the police,

In Nicaragua, the delegitimized government of the former guerrilla leader Daniel Ortega and the social democratic Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) continues. The head of what is becoming the Ortega clan, maintained an irresponsible handling of the pandemic, which, however, did not prevent the good performance of the country in public health indicators. The situation of economic recession, reinforced by the United States sanctions, worsened significantly due to the pandemic that led to a contraction of -5% of GDP, although there was a parallel increase in mining exports. The repressive activity continued, with the imprisonment of some opposition activists and the expropriation of some assets of non-governmental organizations critical of the government. At the same time, there were also murders and displacements of indigenous people on the Caribbean coast. There were civic protests led by the right, repressed by the Police, as well as mobilizations of the women's movement against feminicides and sexual violence.

In Costa Rica, the government of academic Carlos Alvarado of the social liberal Citizen Action Party (PAC) continues. The government continued its Fiscal Plan of social cuts, amid the worsening of the already weak economic situation due to the coronavirus, which led to a contraction of -4.5% of GDP. The government promoted new legislation that restricts strike activity, the scandal of the Data Analysis Unit managed by the presidency was uncovered, and the continuation of violence against indigenous activists is presented. The government lost the municipal elections to the right, although in these electoral days the evangelical parties also lost their capacity. Since September, there have been two weeks of large popular protests with the blockade of carts against the government's project to request a mega loan from the IMF and carry out neoliberal reforms, protests that were victorious. Likewise, environmental protests were filed against the fishing industry.

In Panama the government of businessman Laurentino Cortizo of the center-left Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) developed. The new government has promoted the so-called Bicentennial Pact as well as a reform to the Social Security Fund. However, his draft constitutional reform presented in 2019 was withdrawn by popular protest. In economic matters, the country saw its strong growth affected in a sensible way by the pandemic that led to a decrease of -6.5%, which did not prevent a negative inflation situation of -0.8% from occurring. During the year, there were union protests against the labor flexibility decrees, mobilizations of young workers demanding their inclusion in government support programs and the new year began with a popular protest in the city of Colón for work and basic sanitation. Right-wing civic demonstrations and anti-government protest rallies were held in January, as well as scattered popular protests against shortages of food, medicine and the disruption of public services.

In Cuba, the government of the politician Miguel Díaz-Cannel of the bureaucratic Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) continued with his agenda of economic opening and political continuity. The heir to the Castro government, after promulgating the new 2019 constitution, implemented an economic reform that unifies the existing double currency in the country, which triggered the prices of essential products. The pandemic aggravated the previous situation of economic crisis and led to an estimated decrease of -11% of GDP, affected by the tightening of the US blockade and the decline in tourism. There were popular protests dispersed by the authorities against police brutality, and since November the activity of the artists of the San Isidro Movement with hunger strikes, against government decrees that limit artistic expressions.

In Haiti, the government of businessman Joven Moise of the right-wing liberal Haitian Party Tet Kale, remained in power after going through the anti-government protests of 2019. However, and amid the strengthening of criminality, the government experienced armed police protests in March that ended in clashes with the army. The former president of the Haitian employers' association ruled by decree, with a parliament closed since January, in the midst of his draft constitutional reform to strengthen the executive power. In economic matters, the country experienced the strong shock of the world recession with an estimated decrease of -4% of GDP, and a high inflation of 22.4%.

In the Dominican Republic there was a shift to the right and the businessman Luis Abinader of the social liberal Modern Revolutionary Party (PRM) assumed the leadership of the State. After the protests in February led by the right against the postponement of the general elections due to alleged technical failures and against the government of Danilo Medina, the opposition sectors were the winners of the presidential elections in July, which showed progressivism worn out after 14 years in office . The government of Abinader, a former leader of the hotel association, expressed its interest in aligning itself with the United States, which facilitated the signing of a Cooperation Treaty with that country and outlined a general budget law that imposes cuts in public spending at times when those in which the economy suffers a contraction of -6% of GDP, while maintaining the supra-party policy of expulsion and exclusion of Haitian migrants. In the country there were civic protests led by the right, the largest in two decades, as well as popular protests against raising taxes on the population and against power cuts in some areas of the capital.

In Puerto Rico the interim government of attorney Wanda Vázquez of the conservative New Progressive Party (PNP) was presented. The former legal secretary of the government Roselló, developed her unpopular management under the promise of reviewing the questioned contracts of the previous government, while facing the controversy over her mismanagement of aid for the victims of the 2019 earthquakes. The long economic depression of the country undergoing restructuring since 2016, was aggravated by the effects of the pandemic, which nevertheless led to a negative inflation situation of -1.6%.

In Jamaica the government of politician Adrew Holness of the right-wing Jamaica Labor Party (JLP) continued, who renewed his mandate and widened his legislative majority in the little crowded snap elections in September. The first conservative government re-elected in half a century, without much success, promotes a project to fight institutional corruption and the construction of low-income housing and infrastructure, in which it continues to be the country with the most violent crimes in the region. The economy, which had been suffering from a certain agricultural crisis, experienced a strong blow with a contraction estimated at -10.7% of GDP. Popular protests against police brutality took place in the country in May.

In Colombia, the government of politician Iván Duque of the far-right Democratic Center (CD) and a conservative government coalition continues. The government of the former banking advisor, faced the corruption scandals of the political ñeñe and the escape of Aida Merlano with the complicity of the investigative entities and the big press. The situation of weak economic growth took a leap due to the deep crisis of the coronavirus that reached a decrease of -6.8%, which was not mitigated by the very limited programs of social assistance. Meanwhile, the armed conflict escalated in certain colonization areas, the unsuccessful strategy of forced eradication of crops for illicit use deepened, leading to multiple clashes with coca growers. while the security forces carried out military operations against the ELN structures, and the violence against social leaders, especially rural leaders, who defend the peace process and the environment continued. There were important social protests around the commemorations of the 2019 national strike with center on October 21 and revolts against police brutality on September 9 and 10 with axis in the Bogotá savanna. On the other hand, there was a 91-day strike by the Cerrejón mining companies to demand their collective agreement, as well as workers' conflicts in education over budget, oil against privatization, and a public library against massive layoffs. There were also mobilizations and hunger strikes by university students for free enrollment,

In Venezuela, the situation of dual power is maintained, with the authoritarian government of the former labor leader Nicolás Maduro of the statist United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) and the Great Patriotic Pole at the head of the State, and the former student leader Juan Gaudio de la Conservative Popular Will (VP), as a parallel government of the legislature, supported above all by the United States, the European Union and the Lima Group. After the dissolution of the failed Constituent Assembly, the legislative elections of December 6 were presented in the country, boycotted by the majority of the opposition, which resulted in a new Madurista majority in the National Assembly, as well as in regional power, while in In parallel, a National Consultation was developed led by a divided right wing. The Maduro government has promoted the "Vuelta a la patria" program that has meant the return of 300,000 migrants to the country, although irregularity continues to predominate and even the departure of people, which UNHCR estimates at 5.4 million people since 2016. The economic depression continues, aggravated by the pandemic that reaches an estimated decrease of -25% of GDP, amid hyperinflation that the IMF estimates at 6,500%. Civic protests led by the right took place in the country in January, as well as a multitude of popular protests demanding food, medicine and public services. aggravated by the pandemic that reaches an estimated decline of -25% of GDP, amid hyperinflation that the IMF estimates at 6,500%. Civic protests led by the right took place in the country in January, as well as a multitude of popular protests demanding food, medicine and public services. aggravated by the pandemic that reaches an estimated decline of -25% of GDP, amid hyperinflation that the IMF estimates at 6,500%. Civic protests led by the right took place in the country in January, as well as a multitude of popular protests demanding food, medicine and public services.

In Guyana a political change took place, with the inauguration of the government of the politician Irfaan Ali of the Social Democratic People's Progressive Party. International banking advisor and young Muslim of Indian descent, Ali triumphed in the controversial general elections in March, the results of which took 5 months to be published, achieving a slight majority in parliament and local power, with a pro-business and reduction program of taxes. In the midst of the world's greatest economic boom, which is estimated at a growth of 50% of GDP, explained by the new oil discoveries, the country saw the other economic sectors strongly resented by the pandemic. At the same time, there was an increase in border tension with Venezuela over the disputed area of Essequibo, partly due to the military exercises that the former British colony conducted with the United States. In March there were protests due to the delay in the results of the elections, in September there were violent youth protests over the murder of two young people who were repressed by the police, as well as major riots by the imprisoned population.

In Suriname, the former national police chief Chan Santhoji of the social liberal Progressive Reform Party and a center-right coalition assumes the presidency, after the victory in the controversial general elections in May in which Bouterse's second election project collapsed . With his image of a heavy hand, the former justice minister Santhoji of Indian descent, proposes a program to strengthen security, possible imprisonment of Bouterse and rapprochement with the United States, an intention however limited by the importance of the figure of the convicted Vice President Brunswijck in the Netherlands for drug trafficking. In economic matters, the country achieved a restructuring of its external debt, although it experienced a sharp drop in its economic activity with a contraction of -4.9% of GDP, with a very high inflation of 49. 8%, amid rising debt. The country experienced civic protests over controversies in electoral results.

In Ecuador, the last year of the management of businessman Lenin Moreno of the liberal social party Alianza País. The former vice president of Correa now facing politically and judicially with his predecessor, unsuccessfully sought to rebuild his legitimacy and popularity after the partial defeat he suffered at the 2019 protest. At the same time, the government maintained its plans for economic adjustment and progressive release of the price of the fuels. The economic crisis was deepened by the pandemic and restrictions on economic activity that led to an estimated contraction of -8.9% of GDP. There were popular protests of a working-class and student majority against government cuts since May and September, as well as blocks of rural women for infrastructure.

In Peru, the political crisis reopened, with the dismissal by the Senate of President Martin Vizcarra in November on charges of corruption, the brief interim government of the businessman and president of Congress Manuel Merino of the right-wing Popular Action and after the fall of the government due to the protest popular, the new administration of the former senator and former World Bank executive, Francisco Sagasti of the center-right Partido Morado. Legislative elections were held in the country with a victory for the right wing and the collapse of traditional political parties, as well as a judicial conviction for corruption against the right-wing leader Keiko Fujimori. In the economic aspect, the country experienced a deep crisis that led to a decrease of -12-7% of GDP. Regarding protests,

In Bolivia there was a great political change, which marked the end of the coup government of the evangelical politics Jeanine Añez of the conservative National Democratic Movement and the broad victory in the general elections of November of the economist and technocrat Luis Arce of the indigenist Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS ). During most of the year, the dictatorial government of the television presenter Añez exercised press censorship, harassing the countries that granted diplomatic asylum to Evo Morales, prosecuted on charges of terrorism, and reinforced the reactionary ideology of the armed forces by covering up the Senkata and Sakaba massacres of 2019 and partially reversed the partial agrarian reform. In economic matters, the country experienced a decrease of -6.2% of GDP, partly due to falls in areas such as construction and mining. In the country, there were civic protests around the elections, mainly by MAS supporters against the postponement of the elections in July and August, as well as more localized protests by the Santa Cruz right wing against their electoral defeat. There was also a strike by aeronautical workers due to delay in the payment of wages, a hunger strike by the local authorities of Cochabamba demanding resources to face the pandemic, and mobilizations of merchants in demand of the economic reopening.

In Brazil, the authoritarian government of former military man Jair Bolsonaro and of the new far-right formation Alliance for Brazil continues, after their resounding departure from the PSL. The enthusiastic coup leader of yesterday and today Bolsonaro, faces judicial and political scandals, in a country with a major environmental crisis due to the continuation of the fires in the Amazon, with a resurgence of police violence against poor and black youth and violence against the trans population. After an interruption in the slow growth dynamics, the South American giant had a drop in economic activity of -4.05% of GDP, limited by a record level of its public debt and the increase in hydrocarbon exports. In the country, there was a strike by postal workers against the suspension of labor rights and privatization plans for more than a month, as well as work stoppages by Renault workers against the massive layoffs and the state oil companies Petrobras against the closure of related companies, the latter movement that was declared illegal. Likewise, there were popular protests over the disastrous government handling of the pandemic in June and protests by the black movement against police brutality in November.

In Paraguay, the management of businessman Mario Abdo Benítez of the conservative Colorado Party continues. The son of Stroessner's former private secretary and admirer of the dictator, faces a corruption scandal in the management of funds to face the pandemic, while a historical drought of the Paraguay River was presented and the military operations against the EPP were maintained and in one from these facts the murder and the official cover-up of the murder of two girls takes place. The country, which came from a previous wave of growth, experienced a limited drop in its economic activity by -1% of GDP, due to public investment plans and the activity of the primary sector, although its level of fiscal deficit also increased.

In Chile, the weakened government of businessman Sebastián Piñera and the right-wing coalition Chile Vamos remain. As a central fact, the celebration of the October National Plebiscite on the Constitution stands out, which by more than 78% leads to the formation of a Constituent Assembly to replace the constitution of the Pinochet dictatorship. In this section of the second government of one of the richest men in Chile, there was a small improvement in the unpopular image of the presidency, while the so-called case of manipulation of public health information by the government administration was uncovered. In the economic field, the country's economy experienced a contraction of -6.25% of GDP. There was a strike of more than a month of the copper workers of the Candelaria mine, strike by workers' sectors of hydroelectric plants in Nehuenco, popular protests for the freedom of those detained during the popular rebellion, and hunger strikes by more than 20 Mapuche political prisoners. There was also a business strike by truckers demanding security measures and repression against the Mapuches in the south of the country, which strongly affected national transport.

In Argentina, the government of lawyer Alberto Fernández from the centrist Partido Justicialista (PJ) and the Frente de Todos coalition continues. The Fernandez-Fernandez government achieved the restructuring of the debt with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) while installing a slow progressive agenda in the legislature that included projects such as the tax on large fortunes or the legalization of abortion. The economic crisis that started several years ago was aggravated by the effect of the strict quarantine with an estimated fall in GDP of -12.9% and although inflation decreased it is still at a high level of 36.1%. In terms of struggles, there was a strike by strategic oil workers in December, which also extended to ports and grain transportation, as well as strikes by journalists and health workers.

In Uruguay, the new right-wing government of politician Luis Lacalle Pou of the conservative National Party (PN) and the traditionalist multi-color coalition took over. The administration heir to the blacksmithing of the white party, presented a security program with great expenses in equipping the Armed Forces and approved its general budget with social cuts as well as the authoritarian Law of Urgent Consideration that greatly increases the powers of the police, harden penalties, it outlaws street blockades and factory occupations and penalizes acts of disobedience against public authorities. There was a significant drop in economic activity with a decrease of -4.5% of GDP, with an increase in the fiscal deficit, amid the government's program to cut public spending.

Movements and social protest

Although 2020 was a relative ebb in the face of the great social explosion experienced in several countries in the region 2019, this was a year rich in social and popular mobilizations. Due to its magnitude, the main protest days of the year were presented in Costa Rica with the general strike with work stoppages, street shutdowns and marches against the mega loan to the IMF, and in Peru where street protests led to the fall of the Merino government and sparked a subsequent sequence of agrarian protests. Also important were the protests in Guatemala against the approval of the 2021 budget and the mobilizations in Bolivia against the interim government and the postponement of the elections. as well as the union and popular mobilizations in Ecuador against the social cut program and the youth revolt against police brutality in Colombia. The largest popular protests continue to have as their axis the fight against social cuts, although political crises and the response against authoritarian exits are also key.

In the labor movement, the most important conflicts arose in demand for collective bargaining agreements both in Argentina, with the nationwide strike of workers in the oil industry, which extended to ports and grain transportation terminals, and in become a general conflict in Rosario, as in Colombia where there was a 91-day strike by the coal workers of Cerrejón, the largest open pit mine on the continent. Also important were the two partial national strikes of outsourced homeworkers in Brazil, as well as the call for an international strike of delivery girls on October 8 with repercussions in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, in demand of better working conditions; As well as the international strike of Amazon workers during Black Friday in which Mexican and Brazilian employees participated to demand better working conditions and an end to the labor persecution in one of the companies that earned the most from the pandemic. Also key was the activity of health workers, highly mobilized at this critical juncture, one of whose expressions was the protest of health workers in the southern cone on November 20, with mobilization in Chile and sector strikes in Paraguay and Uruguay, in addition to conflicts in Honduras, Mexico, Colombia and Peru.

In the peasant movement the activity of Peru was key, where the strikes with roadblocks carried out by the agrarian workers of Ica and La Libertad were central, who called national strikes, against the agrarian law. The national mobilization and the peasant camp in Asunción were also important in Paraguay, demanding the cancellation of debts promised by the government and by land programs and government aid, as well as the protests of coca farmers in Colombia in a more localized way.

In the student movement, for its part, there were some mobilizations with hunger strikes for the free public university in Colombia, as well as for better study conditions in Brazil, in addition to the great student leadership of the protests in Guatemala, Costa Rica and Chili.

Meanwhile, the indigenous movement maintained important levels of mobilization in Colombia with the indigenous and popular minga of the Nasa majority that moved to the capital in demand of urgent attention, Chile, where the situation of social conflict in Araucanía worsened and strikes developed hunger of Mapuche political prisoners and regions of Central America.

In the field of civic-popular protests, the historical crisis generated multiple protest measures against the quarantine and for economic demands. On the one hand, there were popular protest movements, of unemployed or informal workers for social assistance in the face of the crisis, as in Argentina or Colombia. On the other hand, localized conflicts arose against hasty reopening and without biosecurity measures, as in Mexico; and finally ambiguous protests by business leadership for the reopening of different sectors and economic activities, especially services, amid the widespread bankruptcy of companies. Lastly, deniers of the pandemic protested, strongly influenced by the extreme right, were presented with a lot of media visibility and little social force.

The women's movement saw the enormous feminist victory in Argentina that led, under pressure from the street, to the legalization of abortion in parliament, in what is an example for the rest of the region. On the other hand, the massive mobilization of women in Mexico against femicides and patriarchal violence was of great importance, as well as the growth of the movement in Central America, the Caribbean and the high Andean region.

In the movement of the black population, the great anti-racist protests against police brutality took place in Brazil, as well as mobilizations in tune with the demands of the movement, black lives matter in Cuba and Jamaica.

Among other social sectors, there were protests by the population deprived of liberty, protesting poor sanitary conditions and against the abolition of the visitation regime, which took the form of riots and a hunger strike in 11 countries of the region, 6 of which There were murders, the case of Colombia being the bloodiest known.

In the midst of a pandemic, a recession and a crisis of historic proportions, the struggle and popular resistance continue. It is still a task for organized anarchists to think about our reality in order to continue helping to strengthen the struggles.

[1]Own calculations based on information available in Google News about coronavirus from 25 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

https://grupovialibre.org/2021/02/24/analisis-de-coyuntura-de-america-latina-para-2021/
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