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(en) cab anarquista: Buenaventura Durruti - 125 years (ca, de, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Tue, 20 Jul 2021 09:38:30 +0300

He was born on July 14, 1896 and began working as an apprentice at the age of fourteen in a mechanical workshop. Later, he worked as an assembler mechanic on a railroad in León. He became involved with the railroad strikes in 1917 and from the contact with the CNT section in Leon, he joined this historic anarcho-syndicalist center. Dismissed for his strike agitation, he settled in Gijon, in northern Spain, where he became acquainted with and immersed himself in anarchist ideology. Soon after this brief stay, he went into exile in France, unable to find work and had refused compulsory military service. In France he was influenced by Sébastien Faure, Louis Leccoin and Emile Cottin, who became his friends.

Upon returning to Spain, he began working as a mechanic in San Sebastián and joined an anarchist group called "Los Justicieros". When he moved to Barcelona in January 1922, he was faced with an atmosphere of heavy union persecution and hired gunmen by the bosses acting against union members and killing workers in the streets. Thus, he created the group "Los Solidários", an armed direct action group that was linked to the National Revolutionary Committee, based in Barcelona. In 1923, Cardinal Soldevila, a member of the clergy involved in the murders of union members and workers, was executed.

After the arrest and death of some members of the Solidarity, he went into exile again in France and, in 1924, Durruti left for Cuba, together with Ascaso, promoting revolutionary agitation. They pass through Mexico, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. When they return to France, they are arrested and accused of "a plot against the King of Spain, Alfonso XIII, who would visit the French capital during this period. An anarchist solidarity campaign led to their release in 1927, but almost no country in the world accepted them within its borders. He remained underground in France, where he met the revolutionary Nestor Makhno. He was arrested again on French soil for six months. He passed through Germany, having contact with Rudoplh Rocker and Belgium, where he remained until April 1931, together with Ascaso.

Retorna à Espanha em 1931 e é considerado por todos os operários como uma grande referência política e sindical. Envolveu-se em inúmeros conflitos sociais entre 1931 e 1936, onde foi preso e deportado inúmeras vezes. Em meio a luta sindical aguerrida e diante o golpe fascista, Durruti inspirou e colaborou ativamente com o iminente processo revolucionário espanhol. Trabalhou para armar os operários diante a ação da extrema-direita e quando a Revolução de 1936 estourou, organizou a coluna Durruti-Farras, que contava com dez mil homens. Durruti era o delegado político da coluna e Farras o delegado militar.

In every town and village that the Durruti-Farras column passed, fascists were expelled by bullet. Agricultural collectivities, generalized self-management of factories, and popular self-organization advanced. As the Durruti column advanced, the republican government boycotted the popular struggle and the self-organized militias of the workers.

His last participation in the Spanish Revolution was in the military defense of Madrid, where he actively participated in the battles against the fascists, from November 14th until his death on the 19th.

After his death, the Friends of Durruti group was founded, bringing together militants opposed to collaboration with the republican government, and in favor of the immediate realization of the social revolution, breaking with the bourgeois order and proposing a Revolutionary Junta to better coordinate the revolutionary process and the war. The hegemonic positions within the CNT and the FAI, however, will remain in the background and incapable of preventing the Stalinist coup that would end up repressing the revolution and thus causing defeat in the face of fascism.

Source: Abel Paz. Durruti: from revolt to revolution.

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