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(en) federacion anarquista de rosario: History - Roots of the specific proposal in Argentina (ca, de, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Tue, 13 Jul 2021 10:17:47 +0300

[Note published in Agitación por el socialismo y la libertad magazine nº 1] ---- Specific anarchism, or specificism, as a political current of organized anarchism recognizes its birth linked to the experience of the Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAu) in the 1960s. However, this political proposal for Latin American anarchism finds its roots in the very origins of anarchism as an ideology, when it forms its identity as a current of socialism that is organized against all forms of domination. ---- In this sense, Mijaíl Bakunin, an anarchist referent of the 1st International, will be the first to trace and practice this conception of politically organized anarchism, when he began to develop the proposal of organizational dualism. This proposal raises the double militancy of the anarchists, on the one hand in specific anarchist organizations and on the other in the different social groups where the oppressed come together such as unions, student centers, territorial organizations, etc.

The influence of Bakunin and the First International will be key in the emergence of anarchism in Argentina, strongly linked to mass immigration, anarchism will begin to rapidly gain adherents in both the immigrant and indigenous population. The first traces of anarchism date back to the 1870s, but it will be a few years later when our current gains greater strength. In the 1880s Errico Malatesta, an Italian anarchist, will travel to Argentina and will be a great promoter and articulator for the still incipient anarchism. From the creation of the Circle of Social Studies, it will have influence in large sectors of anarchism, also promoting the creation of unions. Malatesta, He was also a defender of the specific anarchist organization and its differentiation from the organizational tools for social struggles. It will make its mark in this respect in the way that early unions take.

In 1887 the Bakers Union was founded, Malatesta was responsible for the drafting of its statutes where the imprint that will be reproduced in other unions in subsequent years is made clear. From this proposal, the union, a class tool of the workers, will have as its goal resistance as well as the conquest of demands. Although the union model that is built has principles and methodologies linked to anarchism, it is broad, it seeks to cover the entire group of workers without needing to have an ideological affiliation to anarchism. The influence of Malatesta in the Bakers union will lead to this union matrix being reproduced in other unions, such as mechanics and shoemakers and having influence in numerous strikes and labor disputes.

A few years later, in 1897, Malatesta in an article for the newspaper L 'Agitazione clearly speaks to us of organizational dualism as his proposal for the action of anarchism. In this sense, it proposes organization in a triple sense, organization as a necessary quality for life in society, organization for the struggle and resistance of workers, and anarchist political organization. The latter aims at the unity of action between anarchists, to enhance their influence in the social environment with a joint strategy and a collectively discussed theory.

Malatesta's influence on his stay in Argentina was a glue for anarchism. His return to Europe will mark a moment of fragmentation and debate between different currents. At the end of the 1890s we again find signs of continuity of the specific proposal, with the formation in Buenos Aires of the Libertarian Federation of Anarchist Socialist Groups, where the figure of Pietro Gori stood out. This organizational tool, despite its short existence, was a clear attempt to constitute an anarchist political organization. With the model of federation of groups, it also had an organic charter, to regulate the internal functioning of the federation.

In 1900 the Catalan anarchist Pellicer Paraire, a militant with a long history in Spain, who had known and militated alongside Bakunin, would arrive in Argentina and who will have great influence in the debate surrounding the formation of the Argentine Workers Federation in 1901. A Starting from a series of articles published in the newspaper La Protesta, Paraire will defend the Bakuninist organizational dualism and will advance the strategic definitions of anarchism. In this sense, Paraire argues in his articles that there should be two forms of organization: a social one that groups the workers as such and another revolutionary one where anarchist militants converge permanently. He explains the link between the two with the metaphor of being two parallel branches, like the railroad tracks that, despite their equidistance, they constitute a unit by which the "train" reaches its destination. This destiny will be the social revolution.

Thus, by 1901 when the FOA (Argentine Workers Federation) was formed between resistance societies with an anarchist impulse in unity with sectors linked to the Socialist Party, the prevailing union construction model was not to ascribe to a particular ideology, but to build tools of struggle and broad resistance for all workers. Progress beyond the initial period remains pending, but we believe that what has been stated so far allows us to affirm that the political proposal of organizational dualism was present in our country from the beginning. A detailed rereading of the debates and specific organizational strategies allows us to see that "forista anarcho-syndicalism" was not the only proposal promoted by anarchists in Argentina during this period.

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