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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire monthly February 2010 - The persistent Palestinian left on Between Fatah and Hamas [machine translation]

Date Sat, 29 May 2010 18:23:27 +0300

The Palestinian left was relegated to the background so strong in the 1970-1980 and failed to take advantage of the second Intifada to reposition. Converted into a secondary force in the armed struggle, could revive relying on civil society? ---- The first of January 2009, the Left Front, federating the PFLP, the DFLP and the PPP, issued a statement "of the Palestinian leftist forces" to discuss how "to deal with the criminal Zionist aggression against our people ... and resist. " The text called for, first, for a dialogue between Fatah and Hamas, whose fighting undermined the Palestinian struggle. The Left Front called for on the plane of the armed struggle, "the coordination on the ground, through a unified command between the different armed wings, without exception" to achieve "in a united resistance against the aggressor."

On the political plan called for the creation of "popular committees in the fields and barrios in the towns and cities, including in its ranks to all political forces, civil society organizations and national personalities who wished to participate, with the purposes for which these structures are able to organize all forms of solidarity and support for those who need it. " These positions today identified the struggle of the Palestinian left in its diversity.

The PFLP is barely in Ramallah

On the Left, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) is undoubtedly the most important organization. Born in 1967, the PFLP is born of the Arab Nationalist Movement (NAM), inspired by pan-Arab, socialist, revolutionary and secular. The NAM was founded in Beirut in 1948 by Constantine Zireik Syrian and Palestinian George Habash, a former volunteer in the Arab expeditionary force during the 1948 war. The organization had cells in almost every country in the Middle East, with the aim of overthrowing the reactionary monarchies and in Palestine, to break the Zionist yoke. After the defeat of the Six Day War, 1967, each section of the MNA became autonomous. In Palestine, evolved toward Marxism and became the PFLP, led by George Habash.

Since its founding, the PFLP adopts the strategy of popular anti-imperialist war. They organize the masses and organizing the armed struggle independently, without waiting for the release of a hypothetical war led by the Arab States of the region. The PFLP, at the same time wants to fight against Zionism, imperialism, the capitalists and the exploiting classes Arabs. Israel is described as an imperialist state in nature, supported by world Zionism. But the PFLP said that within the Jewish population, the proletariat is capable of adopting revolutionary positions. The PFLP claimed an egalitarian Palestine between Jews and Arabs in an Arab nation composed in the context of the Middle East. For a long time, the PFLP will receive financial support from Moscow, which will not prevent be critical of the model embodied by the USSR.

Installed in Jordan with the other organizations of Fedayeen, the PFLP is part of the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1968 and developed a great activity in this field. Is made known in the world for hijacking but waives this tactic in 1972 and concentrates its activities in Israel and the occupied territories.

As the second Palestinian organization within the PLO after Fatah (right patriotic), the PFLP is in its origin, influential in the refugee camps. Since 1973, opposes the orientation of Fatah but refuses to split all of the PLO not to weaken the Palestinian resistance.

Opposed to the Oslo Accords of 1993, the PFLP is reconciled with Arafat in August 1999, at the beginning of final status negotiations on the Palestinian territories, but the two-state solution is not accepted more than temporarily, to create a peaceful environment. As explained by the secretary general of the PFLP Ahmedt Saadat: "The struggle for a democratic state only, without any form of ethnic or religious discrimination should not stop because it is the only possible solution to solve the problems of the Palestinians of 1948 and its right to return. " [1]

The PFLP, however, has returned to the force of the years 1970-1980. The rise of Islamism has weakened and Israeli targeted killings, "the secretary general of the time, Abu Ali Mustafa, was killed in this way in 2001 at his office in Ramallah by a projectile. The PFLP took the opportunity to prove he still had capacity to respond by killing the right-wing Israeli minister Rehavam Zeevi.

Today, the PFLP said his opposition both to corruption and guidelines conciliatory Fatah and the Hamas takeover in the Gaza Strip. But the relationship with the latter organization are determined by the needs of the resistance: "The PFLP and Hamas (are) in the side of the resistance, the camp of those who defend our people, our cause and our fundamental rights" says organization [2]. And one of their leaders, Khalida Jarrar, estimated last June that "like other revolutionary movements, for example in Latin America can be, in certain historical moments, a certain relationship between Marxism and religion." [3] In 2005, the PFLP militant Janette Khoury, 62, won the mayoralty of Ramallah Fatah, with the support of Hamas, thus becoming the first woman mayor of a major Palestinian city.

But his influence is weak outside of this feud. At the legislative elections of 2006, has gained 4.2% of the vote in 3rd position behind Hamas (42.9%) and Fatah (39.8%). He had his best results in Bethlehem (9.4%) in Ramallah (6.6%) and North of Gaza (6.5%).

Diffuse line FDLP*

The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) was born in 1969 in a split from the PFLP, reproaching to deal too much on military matters, leaving the political and ideological. Its initial implementation was mainly in the refugee camps of Lebanon, but also in the occupied territories.

Like the PFLP, the DFLP is favorable to the creation of a Palestinian state socialist, classless society, in which Arabs and Jews live in peace while respecting their cultures. Paradoxically, its leader Nayef Hawatmeh was the first-even before Arafat to join the interim solution of two separate states. Since 1970, the DFLP began deep dialogue with the organization Matzpen of Israel.

The armed struggle is not ignored by the DFLP, in 1970, develops actions against both military targets and civilian targets in Israel. Opposite, as the PFLP, the Oslo accords, the DFLP the fighting ceased during the "peace process" of Oslo. A member of the PLO, is tied to his unit.

After the start of the second Intifada in 2000, the organization, though considerably weakened, developed some attacks on the colonies.

In the legislative elections of 2006, the DFLP made common cause with the PPP and the Palestinian Democratic Union, obtaining 2.8% of votes.

The PPP forgotten refugees

The Palestinian People's Party (PPP) is somehow the oldest Palestinian political party because it takes its origins from the Palestine Communist Party (PCP), founded in 1919. After many decades of alignment with Moscow, had changed considerably.

After the creation of the State of Israel, the PCP was merged with the PC and its members Jordano unwrapped particularly within the Palestinian labor movement. Recreated in February 1982, the PCP joined the PLO in 1987. The first Intifada gave him the opportunity to be a popular base.

With the dislocation of the USSR, and to avoid a collapse of the party, the PCP was renamed Palestinian People's Party in 1991. Its general secretary, Bashir Barghouti played a key role in the Oslo negotiations. The party actually supports the Oslo process, interpreting it as a step that allows the construction of an independent and sovereign Palestinian state on 1967 borders.

Going beyond this logic, in 2002, the PPP is in favor of the Arab initiative, an ephemeral proposition Palestinian conflict regulation made by the future king of Saudi Arabia, Abdallah. The PFLP and the DFLP, meanwhile, have opposed this proposal, because it restricted the right of return of refugees to the quotas set by Israel.

In the presidential election of January 2005, the candidate of the PPP, Bassam Al Salhi, he received only 2.7% of the vote.

The INP, "a" New Left "?

The loss of influence of the traditional Palestinian left in the 1990s, its hard to fill its own area, the popular classes, no doubt rise to the appearance in June 2002 of a new organization: The Palestinian National Initiative (INP). Directed by Mustafa Barghouti, a former member of the PPP, the INP is intended as "a civil society movement in order to formulate a strategy to enable the Palestinian people freedom from occupation (...) when returning to civil society to give its autonomy of action. " His speech centered on "the rule of law, citizenship rights, rights of women, rights of children, disability rights, social rights" is a break with the discourse of "class struggle "on the left Palestine. It is from operation, which officially lies in rejecting the hierarchical and is based on the federation of local committees, organization of youth and women.

In 2005, during the presidential election, Mustafa Barghouti, a candidate presented by the INP with the support of the PFLP, won 20% of the vote.

Jacques Dubart (AL Agen)


1. January 5 interview in www.france-palestine.org.
2. PFLP Declaration on January 17, 2009 in Ma an information network.
3. Interview June 21, 2009 for Alternative Information Center.


1898 - Theodor Herzl publishes the State of the Jews, and meets the following year the first Zionist Congress.

November 1917 - The British minister of foreign affairs, Lord Balfour proclaims the Zionist Federation, from the British Empire take over Palestine, and favors the creation of a national home for the Jewish people. "

1919 - Founding of the Palestinian Communist Party.

1922 - The Ottoman empire is dismembered, Palestine officially passed into the sphere of British control. The Zionist movement massively purchase land in Palestine to install settlers.

1936 -1939 - Great Arab Revolt.

November 1947 - Plan of Partition: The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 181, mandates the establishment of a Jewish state on 56% of Palestine.

Colonial Laws 1948-1955 organize the expropriation of Palestinian land and property, prohibition of return, and laws granting citizenship to all Jewish immigrants in Israel.

1956 - Israel, France and Britain go to war with Egypt to prevent the nationalization of the Suez Canal.

1959 - Founding of Fatah by Yasser Arafat.

May 1964 - Creation in Jerusalem of the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine (PLO), uniting the resistance movements.

June 1967 - Six Day War. Israel defeats Syria, Jordan and Egypt. West Bank and Gaza are "occupied" but they are not attached, preventing them citizenship to their inhabitants. Foundation of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine George Habash.

1970 - black September: the Jordanian army faces the PLO and expelled from the country.

October 1973 - Yom Kippur War: Egypt and Syria are defeated.

1974 - The UN General Assembly recognizes the right of Palestinians to self determination.

1975 - Start of the Lebanese Civil War, in which the PLO became a faction who defends his country, continuing the operations against Israel.

In September 1978 - Signing of the Camp David agreements under the influence of the United States: Egypt to normalize relations with Israel.

June 1982 - Israel invades Lebanon. The PLO was exiled in Tunisia.

1987 - First Intifada: Palestinians "inside" taking over the Palestinian struggle "outside" can no longer perform. Foundation Hamas by Sheikh Yassine, from the Muslim Brotherhood and funded in part by the Israeli secret services to undermine the PLO.

1988 - The PLO calls for the implementation of resolutions 181, 242 and 338 of the UN, de facto recognition of Israel and the solution of two separate states.

1993-1995 Oslo Accords I and after Oslo II: end of the Intifada, regularization of the occupation of territories under the administration declared partially autonomous Palestine. Acceleration of the settlement policy.

2000 - Second Intifada, the fruit of many years of frustration of the Palestinian population no longer believes in the Oslo accords.

2002 - Start of construction of the wall of shame.

June 2007 - Armed conflict between Fatah and Hamas, which takes full control of the Gaza Strip.

January 2009 - War of Israel against the Gaza Strip.
Related Link: http://www.alternativelibertaire.org
* During the early 1970s there was a friendly communication between the FDLP and the Israeli antiauthoritarian anticapitalist organization Matzpen
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