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From "Albert" <rekkof@hotmail.com>
Date Wed, 20 Sep 2000 04:10:13 -0400

      A - I N F O S  N E W S  S E R V I C E

International Institute of Social History
Nederlands Institute of Scientific International Service
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

This CD-ROM brings together the writing of the Russian anarchist 
Michail Aleksandrovic Bakunin. It includes images and transcriptions 
of more than 1200 letter and more than 350 texts that Bakunin wrote in 
the period 1823 – 1876.

Much of the material is unique: the CD-ROM contains hundreds of texts 
that have not been publsihed before. Many others are being made 
available for the first time integrally and in their original language.

Bakunin devoted his life politics and payed a major role in 
revolutionary movements in the second half of the 19th century. As an 
activist he participated in many of the uprisings that swept through 
Europe after 1848 and he was involved in the foundation of 
revolutionary groups and secret organizations.
As a political thinker, he was a prolific wirter who produced numerous 
articles and speeches, helped to draw up programs for political parties, 
and wrote letters of protest and pamphlets. Moreover, at each period of 
his life he was exchanging letters with dozens of correspondents, 
members of his family as well as political friends. 

Apart from the writings and letters of Bakunin, the CD-ROM contains 
miscellaneous materials, like notes Bakunin made on works he studied, 
codes he used for some of his correspondence, and personal documents. 

Why a CD-ROM?
This CD-ROM has been specifically designed to make use of all the 
possibilities offered by electronic publications and is essentially 
difference from a source publication in paper format. 
All available versions of a text are provided (including the original as an 
image), so that the reader can check transcriptions and translations. 
Searching is handled through full text search instead of a selective 
index. This allows searching for any concept or term used in any of the 
To enable free search through all materials, all texts are made available 
in one language. French has been chosen as it was the one employed 
most by Bakunin himself.
In the same way cross-references to Bakunins other writings are 
possible and biographies of Bakunin and his major correspondents have 
been added. This enables users to directly access background 
information on the historical context of the texts, instead of these being 
offered selectively in editorial notes. 

The CD-ROM presents all writings by Bakunin, those previously 
publised as well as those so far left unpublished. Of all documents a 
version is available in French. For documents originally written in 
another language the original document is also available. Russian texts 
are presented in cyrillic.
The CD-ROM contains thousands of images of original documents so as 
to enable comparison of the texts. 

Transcriptions of text are based on Bakunin's original manuscripts (or 
microfilms or photocopies of these) whenever these were available. 
Information is provided about the manuscripts and editions used. 
Additional notes provide details about date, place of origin, location of 
the documents, original language, translation, and addressee. 

The texts have been divided into three categories. "Letters"  includes 
more than 1200 personal letters of Bakunin to his family and friends as 
well as to his political associates. The category  "Writings"  covers 
articles, pamphlets, lectures, speeches, open letters, documents, 
programs of political groups etc. 
These documents vary in length from one or two pages to booklength 
treatises.  "Various"  includes personal documents, notes on 
philosophical and historical works, translations, codes etc.

Additional materials.
-biogrpahy of Bakunin
-dozens of short biographies of his correspondents
-background information on the project
-explanation of editorial principles
-list of synonyms

-user interface provided both in English and in French

-browsing through documents ordered chronologically, by title, or by 
-free search of up to three search terms through all French versions of 
-control search by addressee, place of writing, country of writing, year
-wildecards and truncated search supported
-fyzzy searching to deal with inconsistencies in orthography
-synonyms list for variations of names
-advanced search options for complex search definitions using 
operators, separators and wildcards
-search history to retrieve previous search definitions
-notebook functions to add annotations documents 
-marking of documents for future reference
-possibility to copy and save texts as rtf-files
-printing of all texts and images supoported
-extensive Help files in English and in French

System requirements
-IBM-compatible PC with 80486 processor, Pention recommended
-minimum 8 MB memory (RAM), 16 MB recommended
-Windows 3.11 and higher, Windows 95, NT 4.0 and higher
-screen resolution  640*480, 800*600, 1024*768, small fonts
-CD-ROM drive, 8-speed or more recommended
-VGA card with display of at least 65,000 colours

This CD-ROM has been realized by

International Institute of Social History
The International Institute of Social History (IISH) is one of the world's 
largest documentary and research centres in the field of social history in 
general and the history of the labour movement in particular.

The IISH holds a large part of Bakunin's papers and a major collection 
on the history of anarchism. ISSH staff have compiled and edited the 
materials presented on this CD-ROM.

Netherlands Institute for Scientific Information Services
NIWI provides scientific information, in the fields of biomedicine, 
social sciences, history and Dutch language and literature.  NIWI is also 
involved in research on new methods of scientific communication and 
develops applications in this area. NIWI developed the interface and 
search system of the Bakunin CD-ROM.

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences is an 
independent advisory body to the Government on matters relating to 
scholarly and scientific research.
The publishing department of the Academy, Edita, has been involved in 
editing and design of the CD-ROM.

P.O. Box  19121
1000GC Amsterdam
The Netherlands

For comments and updates on this CD-ROM, check

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September 2000

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