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(en) anarkismo.net: Baekyao, "The Makhno of Korea" by Dmitri

Date Thu, 14 Jan 2021 09:54:48 +0200


The Shinmin Liberal Commune was structured in a decentralized and federal way, operating with three types of councils: municipal, regional and provincial, and with the free cooperation of all to address vital needs, agriculture, education, funding, etc. Although Japanese troops were better armed, Kim successfully defended the Shinmin Liberation Commune, with the support of other Northeast Asian groups, being able to resist the invaders. ---- Kim JWA-Jin or Baekyao, "The Makhno of Korea" ---- Korean anarchist Kim JWA-Jin was also known as Baekyao "The Makhno of Korea". Born on December 16, 1889, he was born in Hongseong, Chungcheong Province, to a wealthy family. His father was Kim kyeong-Gyu.
At the age of 15 he sold his house, with more than 80 bedrooms, where his family lived from generation to generation, and moved to a smaller one. Three years later, he freed 50 slave families and burned public records of slavery, giving each family enough land to live on; this was the first act of slave emancipation in modern Korea.

He founded the Homyeong School to promote modern science among the masses, as well as the Giho Heunghakhoe Foundation, which provided scholarships to young people from rural areas to study in Seoul. Around 1909, with Yi Chang Bong, They also set up an orphanage in Seoul. In addition, they set up several companies based on a cooperative structure and a newspaper in Hong Kong.

He soon began his struggle against Japanese imperialism. In 1919 the Northern Army was formed to achieve independence from Korea, which was occupied by Japanese troops. On October 21, 1920, an ambush stopped in Chingshanli, Siberia, with the support of the independent Hong Beom-Do military corps, in a regiment of 3,000 Japanese soldiers led by Kano, causing 1,200 fatal casualties to the invader, including Kano . Shortly afterwards, Kim led his army to victory in the Manchurian capital, Cheongsanni.

With this triumph, he was appointed chairman of the Korean Executive Committee and tried to unite all the groups of the independence movement in Manchuria, where more than two million Korean immigrants lived. When the Communist Anarchist Federation of Korea (FACC) established an independent revolutionary community in Shinmin Province, in Japanese-occupied Manchuria, in 1929, under the command of the Korean People's Union, it led its armed forces of Japanese troops.

The Shinmin Liberal Commune was structured in a decentralized and federal way, operating with three types of councils: municipal, regional and provincial, and with the free cooperation of all to address vital needs, agriculture, education, funding, etc. Although Japanese troops were better armed, Kim successfully defended the Shinmin Liberation Commune, with the support of other Northeast Asian groups, being able to resist the invaders.

Baekya's physiognomy has become a legend in Manchuria and North Korea. Kim JWA-Jin was assassinated on January 24, 1930 in Shinmin while repairing a rice mill built by the FACC. Although the criminal material for his murder was never found, a young member of the Communist Party of Korea (CPC), who was the direct instigator of the crime, was arrested and executed. Following Baekyao's assassination, the anarchist movement in Manchuria and Korea suffered mass repression. Japan sent troops to attack Shinming Liberal Commune from the south, while Soviet and Chinese Stalinists, former allies of the anarchists, attacked from the north.

During the summer of 1932, Shinmin's most prominent anarchists were killed and war on both sides proved insecure. The libertarians went underground as Shinmin Liberal Commune was annihilated.

Kim JWA-Jim has been remembered by both North and South Korea as one of the leaders of national independence. In 1991 his house in Hongseong was renovated and turned into a museum. Also, a festival is held every year in October in his honor.

Source: Eleuterio Perot Fernandez. Translation: Neither God nor Master.

https://www.anarkismo.net/article/32137
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