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(en) Brazil, cab anarquista: 156 years since the birth of Fábio Luz -- militants , Rio de Janeiro (ca, it, pt) [machine translation]

Date Wed, 5 Aug 2020 09:01:51 +0300

156 years ago, on July 31, 1864, he was born in Valença, Bahia, Fábio Lopes dos Santos Luz or simply Fábio Luz. He was a doctor, journalist, writer and teacher and died on May 9, 1938 in Rio de Janeiro, being one of the most prominent militants in the history of the anarchist movement in the city. ---- The son of a civil servant and a teacher, he was already indignant when he saw his father register the sale of slaves and the violence of black policemen against other black slaves. He then became an abolitionist and, soon after, a republican, as he believed that the republic would lead to a situation of social justice. During his medical course, he discovered, in a bookstore in Salvador, the book Words of a Revolt of Kropotkin, which led him to anarchism. However, Fábio Luz would only discover the existence of organized anarchism in Rio de Janeiro at the beginning of the 20th century.

His move to the then still capital of the Empire occurred in 1888, shortly after his graduation in medicine, when he defended the thesis Hypnotism and Free Will, considered by some to be a precursor of psychoanalytic theories. Exercising the functions of a hygienist doctor and, from 1893, those of a school inspector, Fábio Luz comes into contact with the serious social problems of the population of Rio. Around 1902, with a group of intellectuals who joined the anarchist movement, started to advertise on doors of factories and workers' places. In 1903, he launched the novel O Ideólogo, a product of this coexistence with the oppressed of the city, becoming one of the precursors of social romance in Brazil, together with the Minas Gerais writer and also anarchist Avelino Foscolo.

In 1904, Fábio Luz was one of those who fought for the establishment of a Popular Free Education University of which he would be a professor and where he would maintain a doctor's office to assist the students of that educational initiative. In his practice of medicine he will also maintain an office in Méier, where he lives and where, currently, there is a street named after him, by which he will be known to the poor in the neighborhood, Engenho Novo and other suburbs as a doctor who examines them free of charge and it still provides them with money to buy medicine. Luz promoted campaigns in favor of hygiene in factories, workplaces, restaurants, bars and cafes, having given lectures and written in newspapers about it, such as the 1913 booklet A Tuberculosis from a Social Point of View, in which it shows how the unhealthy working conditions due to capitalists' negligence lead to the proliferation of that disease among workers. Still in his own home, Luz will informally teach language courses to workers so that they can have access to sociological and cultural works printed in other languages.

1906 is the year of the publication of another novel of his, Os Emancipados, which will name an important anarchist group to which he will be affiliated. His activity as a lecturer will be enormous in free unions and workers' events throughout his existence. In 1915, the publication of Elias Barrão enshrines him as a social writer. However, Luz also embarks on children's literature by writing books such as Memories of Joãozinho and Readings of Ilka and Alba in which she seeks to pass ethical and social values to children.

As a teacher, he taught at Colégio Pedro II (French, Portuguese, history and Latin). In colleges and social studies centers he taught History of Brazil, Natural History and Hygiene. He directed the Ateneu, later Liceu Popular de Inhaúma and was a professor of Arts and Crafts at the Orsina da Fonseca School.

In 1920, his collaboration in the anarchist daily newspaper Voz do Povo led him to prison, after the invasion and jamming of that publication by the police. This fact motivated the reorganization of the group Os Emancipados. Secretary-General of the newly founded PCB, Astrojildo Pereira tries to ridicule the figure of Fábio Luz, to which he responds "to the childishness of mr. Astrojildo "that" our dictator already performs the functions of a religious Bolshevik pontiff; that is how, inspired by the divine Bolshevik powers, he appoints bishops and creates little churches ". In 1922, the year of this controversy with Astrojido, Luz will lead the anarchist newspapers Luta Social e Social Revolução. As a journalist, in addition to the anarchist press in Brazil and other countries, he also collaborated in the commercial press, having acted as a literary critic,

In honor of this social fighter, so unjustly forgotten by the official and literary historiography, his name was placed, in 2001, in a more than deserved tribute, to the Social Library that works in the Social Culture Center of Rio de Janeiro, at Torres street Male 790, in Vila Isabel. Fábio Luz was also honored as the name of a street in the neighborhood of Méier , North Zone of Rio de Janeiro.

(Adaptation of text originally published in the Libera # 140 newsletter from the Anarchist Federation of Rio de Janeiro (FARJ), in 2008)

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