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(en) Czech, AFED, From the memories of a Jewish anarchist: The story of Moshe Gonchararo about anarchist youth in the Soviet Union [machine translation]

Date Fri, 15 Nov 2019 09:01:41 +0200


I have never written memoirs and I assume that it is not necessary to do this to perpetuate the author's personality in the memory of the offspring, but only so that the reader can learn specific historical facts from the time when the author lived and worked. of the time he was interested in, he felt the so-called "smell of the time." In this particular case of the era of "developed socialism" in the Soviet Union, which - as is to be believed - has gone back in history and will never return. ---- I write these brief memories of the suggestion of my friend Anatoly Dubovik, a historian and one of the ideologues of contemporary anarchism in Ukraine. Tolja believes that texts of this type will help historians and young enthusiasts of the movement to better understand the times in which we, the older followers of anarchism, lived.

There are hundreds and thousands of authors in the world belonging to various socio-political movements who have experienced much more than I have suffered much more - more precisely, I have not suffered. I did not sit in Soviet prisons, I was not subjected to involuntary "psychiatric" treatment. I cannot come to the reader with anything that reminds the true and frightening memories of such "bison" of dissent of all kinds and the struggle against Soviet totalitarianism, such as Vladimir Bukovsky, Alexei Murzhenko, Vladimir Osipov, Leonid Plushush, Josif Mendelichev ... looking back and exaggerating their own personality. So I will try to keep the facts strictly.

I was born in 1962 in Leningrad, a family of engineers. Both the father and mother came from completely assimilated Jewish families. His father was born in 1937 in Kremenchug, his mother in 1938 in Leningrad. There were not only Jews among my ancestors. Great-grandmother Berta from her mother's side was born at the end of the 19th century in a small town near Vitebsk, and apparently in the tow at that time among the Jews of fashion assimilation ideas she escaped from her home to live independently: wait for the groom to earn bread, learn and gain expertise to be useful to others. The escape from her family brought her to Vitebsk, where, according to the numer Claus, accepted in Tsarist times for Jews from the "settlement zone", she got to university and eventually became a doctor. Sometime between 1912 and 1913 she met a young Armenian official, a Greek national, Vladimir Sovapulose. As a result of this romantic relationship, the great-grandmother became pregnant. It turned out that the Greek was not at a level - his parents were categorically against marrying a Jewish woman, yet not baptized. The great-grandmother, who did not attach any importance to religion in her life, was more likely to categorically reject baptism. They broke up and in January 1914 my grandmother Kira was born. I will not be boring and tedious about the fate of an assimilated family with Jewish roots. In short: when her grandmother grew up, she married Zaporozhyn, Nikolai Vasilyevich, an engineer from a Volga peasant family with mixed Russian-Tatar (or perhaps Chuvash) roots. Thus began and so continued to disrupt the traditional, sacred, Jewish town, the Jewish traditional way of life. that Greek is not at the level - his parents were categorically against marrying a Jewish woman, not yet baptized. The great-grandmother, who did not attach any importance to religion in her life, was more likely to categorically reject baptism. They broke up and in January 1914 my grandmother Kira was born. I will not be boring and tedious about the fate of an assimilated family with Jewish roots. In short: when her grandmother grew up, she married Zaporozhyn, Nikolai Vasilyevich, an engineer from a Volga peasant family with mixed Russian-Tatar (or perhaps Chuvash) roots. Thus began and so continued to disrupt the traditional, sacred, Jewish town, the Jewish traditional way of life. that Greek is not at the level - his parents were categorically against marrying a Jewish woman, not yet baptized. The great-grandmother, who did not attach any importance to religion in her life, was more likely to categorically reject baptism. They broke up and in January 1914 my grandmother Kira was born. I will not be boring and tedious about the fate of an assimilated family with Jewish roots. In short: when her grandmother grew up, she married Zaporozhyn, Nikolai Vasilyevich, an engineer from a Volga peasant family with mixed Russian-Tatar (or perhaps Chuvash) roots. Thus began and so continued to disrupt the traditional, sacred, Jewish town, the Jewish traditional way of life. They broke up and in January 1914 my grandmother Kira was born. I will not be boring and tedious about the fate of an assimilated family with Jewish roots. In short: when her grandmother grew up, she married Zaporozhyn, Nikolai Vasilyevich, an engineer from a Volga peasant family with mixed Russian-Tatar (or perhaps Chuvash) roots. Thus began and so continued to disrupt the traditional, sacred, Jewish town, the Jewish traditional way of life. They broke up and in January 1914 my grandmother Kira was born. I will not be boring and tedious about the fate of an assimilated family with Jewish roots. In short: when her grandmother grew up, she married Zaporozhyn, Nikolai Vasilyevich, an engineer from a Volga peasant family with mixed Russian-Tatar (or perhaps Chuvash) roots. Thus began and so continued to disrupt the traditional, sacred, Jewish town, the Jewish traditional way of life.

Why am I writing about all this? In order for the reader to understand what forces clashed in education in me, who saw the light of the world in the early 1960s. On the one hand, internationalism, turning into cosmopolitanism, and utter indifference to religion by my mother's family, on the other hand, a clearly expressed search for their own national roots, hidden under the influence of the grandmother's family by the father.

My dad's great-grandfather, working on the railway in Kremenchug, Asher Jezesson, has been supporting the family since the age of 11. He was killed by the Tsarist Cossacks - they stabbed him and threw him off the train. I guess it happened before the revolution. A newspaper reporter who witnessed his death photographed a bloody pool left by a Jewish railwayman and was printed by a local newspaper. When my great-grandmother with the orphans (among whom my grandmother was) was preparing a yartite, the annual reminder of the death of a man, she took this picture in her hand and said a single sentence:

"See what the Russian people have done to your father."

My grandmother repeated the words that had been written to her memory for a lifetime. Then came the year 1937, shot grandmother's brother Sjulik (Israel) as a "Trotskyist", on the other hand was punishment and execution of some of my relatives for non-existent guilt. Then came the year 1941, the evacuation, when my grandmother ran with my father in her arms. The photograph of Asher killed, but the sentence remained.

In the late 1950s my parents met in Leningrad, in 1962 I appeared in the world.

First I went to an eight-year, then I went to a ten-year. The psychological impact of secession from the Bolshevik ideology was strong, although Grandpa Kolya on her mother's side was an orthodox communist, albeit anti-Stalinist. In childhood, when we went out for walks, he used to tell me:

"Miko, Lenin was a good man, Stalin was a bad man before and after the war. He was also good during the war. Understand? "

"I understand, Grandpa," I said, though I certainly didn't understand any of it. In my Russian grandfather, she managed to combine the devotion of the ruling ideology with the injustice of exclusion in 1937.

How and why did I become interested in anarchism? I don't know. I don't remember. It was all said: understanding the pretense of language of preachers of the Soviet system (by the early 1970s, nobody seemed to have any doubts about the pretense of this system); my child's bitterness from my grandmother's sentence that the tsarist Cossacks had killed her father; grandfather's influence - if it were not for Soviet power, it would not become an engineer, an educator, a candidate for sciences, and would remain an ordinary peasant, and therefore pre-revolutionary power was even worse than new (now I'm not quite sure); and how I was offered to join the party in the early 1980s when I was visiting the institute and my mother hissed ominously:

"There will be no communists in my family!"

Certainly the "voices for the hills" also had some influence. We all listened to the voice of America and the BBC in the family, even Grandpa's Orthodox Communist. It was assumed that Radio Liberty and Free Europe were too much, that they were not objective. Israel's voice in Russian and Yiddish only listened to my other grandfather (father's) Khayim; he chuckled and rubbed his hands, always announcing one thing at the end of the listening - what was the current water temperature in the Jordan River. Our distant relative, Aunt Ulja, once a close friend of Anna Andreevna Akhmatova when she came to our house, told me (although she sometimes resorted to French):

"Misha, your grandfather, Dad's dad, has gone completely mad. He doesn't care what the Communists are for the devil to take them. Its wondering how many degrees Jordan has. Let the world be on fire, the whole planet on fire, the Communists celebrate - nothing, its just one thing: how much water today is in Jordan. As if he was about to climb into the Jordan tonight to bathe! These Zionists are completely shot. "

Under the word of the Zionists, she envisioned everyone who not only cursed the "Macht Union" - the native Soviet power she physically hated - but also cared about what was happening in Israel.

At the age of ten, I learned that:

the Bolsheviks are bad; the imperial power, ie the power of the bourgeoisie, also means nothing good; that anti-Semites are dilapidated but nothing can be done about them; that being a Jewish-nationalist (at the time I thought it was the same as a Zionist) was a disgrace. Who was responsible for everything my family and my peers, friends and classmates had to endure? - Bolsheviks and Nazis. That everyone who fights with Soviet power and is locked up in the camp is holy (at that time I did not know that in the dissident movement there were such figures as Ogurcov, a supporter of the Christian-monarchist movement of Russia, Ivanov-Skuratov and Borodin with their strange understanding national issues, and open fascist Fetisov). Not only the dissident, but also the nationalist movement aimed at detaching their peoples from central power in Moscow aroused sympathy. Lithuanian, Estonian, Ukrainian, Armenian. In January 1978 an explosion occurred on the Moscow metro by a group of Stefan Zatikjana. I remember that no one believed it to be a real terrorist act by Armenian nationalists. We agreed that this was a provocation by the KGB in order to deal with the Armenian nationalist movement. It did not occur to anyone that the cost of such a provocation would be too high - to officially acknowledge the existence of a combat underground movement in the successful Soviet Union. The explosion killed and wounded people, moreover, another unexploded bomb was discovered at Kazan station in Moscow. More than twenty years have passed, and I - in Israel - have seen a documentary film on television showing an excerpt from the trial of Zatikjan and his people. Of course, they were filmed by state security officials. I was amazed by the beautiful face of the main accused, who became frightening when he was given the last word: "USSR - Russian-Jewish state ..." I've never heard this from any Armenian in my life. Suddenly I remembered the phrase in an article in the 1978 Izvestia newspaper in which the process was described. There was written about animal anti-Semitism of the main accused. I didn't believe it then, as far as I can remember. And at the beginning of the new millennium I heard it on TV.

In such an atmosphere, at the age of 14, I saw a book by Leo Corný's New Direction in Anarchism , (1) published in St. Petersburg at the beginning of the century in my father's bookshelf . This book changed my life, changed my pioneer-opposition protoideology. The ideology of anarchism has shown me that it is possible to be a proper person outside the order of a particular party; beyond any particular nationality and religion; besides everything what we, big and small, scornfully called "their system".

(Now, after almost thirty years, I think that even in anarchist ideology there was an exaggeration, more precisely, a variety of exaggerations and extremes; but I still think there was no more structured, more serious and open theory than that of Kropotkin and Rocker, not based on an immediate political benefit, but on the concept of Freedom and Justice as such.)

I was a teenager. I searched the library shelves and secondhand books for literature related to anarchism, but I found it little, damn little: I really had Leo Corný; a revised and thoroughly polished edition of Kropotkin's Revolutionary Notes for Children; the biographies of Kropotkin and Bakunin, very carefully written by Natalia Pirum.2) I had the last two books as reference books and took them as such to Israel.

In 1979, when I was sixteen, I could no longer conceal the discoveries of the New Ideology and began to tell them about it to my classmates. Most of the kids preparing for the final exams were completely indifferent. Only my "best kind of childhood", a friend and friend from kindergarten, Valera Bogdanov, listened to me with an open mouth. Leša Tarakanov and a few others joined this group. I will not give their names because they played a very poor role in the history of our group. Tarakanov proved to be a great person, who really took the new ideology to heart (a few years ago we met in St. Petersburg, I would not call him an anarchist anyway). He became the head of the "combat troop" of our "organization", which for the conspiracy called BI - Bunch of idiots. He was the author of the emblem of our group. He copied a bit of the West German RAF. In the middle was a Schmeisser-type submachine gun framed by the words "For yours and ours!" It was this mark that demonstrated the childishness of our notions of illegality. Real illegals in the conditions of totalitarian regime would never occur to create any signs, symbols and anthems.

Fact: In 1979, in Leningrad, the city of three revolutions, 3) we founded the group Chornny Peredel 2,4) whose ideology we described as anarchist. I wrote a program that was a wild eclectic of Kropotkin-Bakunin thought, quotations from Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof (which we mistakenly ranked as anarchists), two three phrases by Timothy Leary, an American hippie ideologist of the 1960s, and Jerry Rubin, a yippie ideologue. times. All this is adorned with references to the narrative ideology of the 1870s and 1980s (Željabov - Perovská) 5) and improved by a good dose of quotations from the Strugacky brothers (primarily from the Ugly Swans, without giving any source).

The program was published in two copies on the typewriter of my grandfather by the Communist (and destroyed in 1984 in April, when I felt that the KGB was deeply interested in some of us).

With this program, with faith in the world revolution, with a vague understanding of the sense of belonging of peer friends, with the feeling that everything would end up differently for us in the 37th, I entered the history faculty of the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute AI Gercen.

Here I met my future (first) wife, Ira Platonova (Shvarcberg), and set out to proclaim the ideas of Absolute Freedom to the masses - between Leningrad hippies at Nevsky Prospekt Metro Station and Gostiny Yard and at a park near Kazan Cathedral. The ideas had some success with local hippies and punks, especially the idea of fighting neo-Nazism. Because it was impossible to fight the ruling ideology personified by the CPSU Central Committee, we decided to fight the so-called "Nazis" in youth circles. The ideology of neo-Nazism was quite popular among adolescents in large Russian cities already in the late 1970s; We discovered the Nazis by their appearance: by their peculiar hairstyle and clothing (black jackets, military caps with stylized swastika, shaved temples, etc.). I will not forget the spectacular brawl between pissing Nazis and punks in the autumn of 1980 at Primorská metro station. We disseminated typewritten leaflets calling for a fight against "neo-Nazism - an unofficial propagator of the ideas of official Soviet power." The semi-official Leningrad Rock Club (actually existed at the time, 6) or did this cultural phenomenon only appear a few years later? I don't remember) in his warlike song-allusions, he legitimized this fight. But after some time, I saw a leader of the pissing pans and Nazis in the café on Zverinská Street (the legendary St Petersburg side behind the moat): they sat at one table, sipped at the port7) (beer?), What they brought with them, and talked about another battle. At that time, it occurred to me for the first time that all the actions of the local youth were in strict agreement with the KGB. which called for a fight against "neo-Nazism - an unofficial propagator of the ideas of official Soviet power." The semi-official Leningrad Rock Club (actually existed at the time, 6) or did this cultural phenomenon only appear a few years later? I don't remember) in his warlike song-allusions, he legitimized this fight. But after some time, I saw a leader of the pissing pans and Nazis in the café on Zverinská Street (the legendary St Petersburg side behind the moat): they sat at one table, sipped at the port7) (beer?), What they brought with them, and talked about another battle. At that time, it occurred to me for the first time that all the actions of the local youth were in strict agreement with the KGB. which called for a fight against "neo-Nazism - an unofficial propagator of the ideas of official Soviet power." The semi-official Leningrad Rock Club (actually existed at the time, 6) or did this cultural phenomenon only appear a few years later? I don't remember) in his warlike song-allusions, he legitimized this fight. But after some time, I saw a leader of the pissing pans and Nazis in the café on Zverinská Street (the legendary St Petersburg side behind the moat): they sat at one table, sipped at the port7) (beer?), What they brought with them, and talked about another battle. At that time, it occurred to me for the first time that all the actions of the local youth were in strict agreement with the KGB. 6) or did this cultural phenomenon appear only a few years later? I don't remember) in his warlike song-allusions, he legitimized this fight. But after some time, I saw a leader of the pissing pans and Nazis in the café on Zverinská Street (the legendary St Petersburg side behind the moat): they sat at one table, sipped at the port7) (beer?), What they brought with them, and talked about another battle. At that time, it occurred to me for the first time that all the actions of the local youth were in strict agreement with the KGB. 6) or did this cultural phenomenon appear only a few years later? I don't remember) in his warlike song-allusions, he legitimized this fight. But after some time, I saw a leader of the pissing pans and Nazis in the café on Zverinská Street (the legendary St Petersburg side behind the moat): they sat at one table, sipped at the port7) (beer?), What they brought with them, and talked about another battle. At that time, it occurred to me for the first time that all the actions of the local youth were in strict agreement with the KGB.

We distributed leaflets at events among ours. In our group, people were coming and going. There were a few sharp guys, among them Leša Zudov, nicknamed Leo Zadov, a conscious eighteen-year-old anarchist with whom we disagreed about the national question: he hated Jews.

In November 1980, we drove to Vyborg, a town near the Finnish border, where one of our suburban forests hosted a "showcase" of our group. With a black banner, we marched a few kilometers under the snowy firs and pines. One of the students from our faculty took great photos of this event, but he refused my request to put the photos in our archive. Now I say to myself - thank God.

In the winter of 1980 my wife Irina, an active Leningrad hippie, failed at the rehearsals. It was a direct secret order - none of the examiners hid it. A month before, Irina stepped out at a seminar in philosophy, highlighting some inconsistency with Marx. Someone slammed it. The task of the dean's office was then to throw her out of the institute. Not the 37th year, but any. "It was easy to get through." Easily meant breaking the central nervous system: Ira had been in bed for months. It is unpleasant to talk about it, all the more because it is not directly related to the purpose of this story. Let me just say how, after the last rehearsal, when Associate Professor Ostrovsky smirked her the ball into the index, she came out of the auditorium - and fell. Something defied. Ostrovsky crossed it and went to the dean's office. He chuckled on the way. I grabbed her hands and looked at the associate professor. That was the first time in my life that I felt hatred. Not abstract, but quite specific.

In 1981, in the Institute building, the Kagebos found a pile of leaflets calling for the liberation of Sakharov and something similar. There were two faculties in this building - history and philosophy. They searched everywhere. They were particularly keen on our "ideological". They took several students, among them Dima General, a hippie poet, an artist (they seem to have broken him); my close friend of a Jew's friend, Roma Miller (for friendly relations with some Vitej Acharov, a representative of the "National-Stalinist Party"; the intervention of a high-ranking father did not help - they excluded him); they summoned me. They asked what I could tell them about the "Generalov and Miller students." I said they're good guys, they learn well. "You think everyone is good and they learn well," the secretive grumbled as he dismissed me.

At that time, we were working on plans to overthrow the Bolsheviks throughout the country. We got a library, prepared plans to find real means to fight. We were thinking about the Sinjavin mud, where the weapons of the Second World War were buried.

At that time, the letters SNZ (Schwarze Neu Aufteilung zwei - the German name of our organization) were seen in Piter in many subways. Some of us wrote, some did not. Why SNZ? Shortcut Cornovo peredela 2 did not sound very nice Russian: CPD.

On March 1, 1981, on the centenary of the killing of Tsar Alexander II. I organized a small gathering on the Yekaterin Canal (Gribojed's channel under the Bolsheviks), where the Savior's Temple stands on blood.8) The passers-by were wondering, the police did not come.

And in the spring of 1984, my former classmate Lena Rubert (assimilated Russian-German family from the Leningrad Germans), a member of the group, called me: "Miško! (proudly) I wrote a leaflet: The Death of the CPSU! I put it up at our institute. Let them see! "

For God's sake!

"How did he write?! Hand or typewriter??? "

"Hand."

Two days later they took him. Nothing better than pinning a handwritten leaflet on the door of the Department of Marine Engineering where he studied. Apparently they recognized it by handwriting.

I don't know exactly what was written there. Something like the USSR is a fascist state.

On the last day of April 1984 I was sitting at a lecture. I had a suitcase of dissident literature with me. My friend Sita Kandaur read it carefully. There was, I think, something from Alexander Isaich (Solzhenitsyn), a few issues in Israeli magazine 22, and some other things. I would say the Leningrad manuscript LEA .

Knock on the door. The Dean's secretary came in.

"Gonchar! Urgent to the Trade Union Committee! " "Light," I whispered, "take the suitcase, sit on it, and don't let anyone in until I get back."

And if I didn't come back? Would I ruin my life?

She was sitting on a suitcase with literature. Until I came back.

In the yard - 1984. April. Just a year to the beginning of the "perestroika". I go to the trade union committee and I feel that everything is wrong. Opening the main door.

A smooth-shaven face in a civilian dress laughs and tells an anecdote to a pale chairman.

"Good day. Míša Goncarok, Faculty of History. Did you call me? "

Young man with careful haircut catches my hand:

"Mikhail Markovich! We are waiting for you! We need to talk. Let's go! "

They had never been called by my father's name before. I was twenty. Well what. My knees were shaking, but let's go.

He led me to a tiny room near the union office. As you walk down the corridor, you won't even notice this room. Somewhere beside the sound was already a large reel tape recorder.

The discussion lasted about five hours. He asked me all sorts of things. What is the group, why Corny peredel, why SNZ. What books we read, what we do. The names of some participants, including Rubert, emerged. From the question he asked, I understood that a maximum of two of my friends voluntarily or coerced to tell the secret what was happening at our meetings. It was very unpleasant to find out that the same Rubert had told everything he knew and did not know, and added that I had him write a famous leaflet and finish the stupid thing by hanging it on the door of the institute to make it known. In the words of the State Security Officer, Lena proved to be a complete jerk - he was crying, not hesitating to fall to his knees and begging for forgiveness, which made the interrogator quite disturbed. I wouldn't believe the secret, but I knew that my friend Lena, even with her broad shoulders, is a big srab. In addition, I learned from the interview that he had told them the names of people associated with me, including those who had nothing to do with our childhood illegality.

Among these was my friend and classmate Igor Tantlevsky, who had nothing to do with the group or anarchism. Igor and I were illegally learning ivrit in the apartment of teacher Valery Ladyzensky. Tantlevsky was also invited to be interrogated, for which he then blamed me and quite rightly pointed out that he does not want to be responsible for my asshole friends who are sidelong sacks and just mistakenly call themselves anarchists, "but not mutually exclusive".

Let's add that Tantlevsky is now Russia's leading biblical and hebraistic expert, author of many large solid books, professor at St. Petersburg University, chairman of a number of scientific committees, participant in international Judaist conferences.

In the interview with the secret, there was such information that Rubert didn't even know, so I realized that the secret was quoting the things I said in an interview with one of the guys we called Brigadier. I think my name was Voloda. For many years, I was told that Vova Brigadier was obviously a provocateur, with a tendency to be hereditary (his father turned out to be an officer of the Ministry of the Interior). what happened at our gatherings.

I was asked to act like a true comedy: he attended meetings of hippies, punks, and others - and then reported. I explained that I did not understand why I was so honored: no organized group was and is not; We had the books we read from legal secondhand books. I found out that the snitches did not know or wanted to announce our fantastic plans to overthrow the state, perhaps they were worried about their skin. Neither the ring program, the emblem, nor the plans to leave the Sinjavin Mud for rusty weapons were spoken.

Ten times, differently each time, he suggested that I become a confident. On the brink of hysteria I said - no. Of course, I was crazy all the time: a nasty smirk of the secret, a lamp shining in the face, the noise of a tape, all of which had a great effect on my nerves. I smoked all the cigarettes, he offered me his. I took and smoked his whole box over the next few hours. I remember it was a white-blue box back then favorite HERE. Later I was told that taking cigarettes on offer is by no means permissible - it is an imaginary sign of potential acceptance of cooperation. When I refused again, he began to threaten. "You, Mikhail Markovich, are a historian, a future educator. We can't allow ourselves to raise our children. "" Well, don't let me do that. I'm really a historian. I needed to study the anarchists in the original, there is little material in readers and textbooks. Is it a crime? Tell me exactly what I did? What did I break the law? "He grinned." Nothing, but you say the child's play stinks. Help us, please be good again. "" No. "

He changed his attitude: "We know your wife is ill. You want us to find her a good doctor? Free of charge. Care level. "" Thank you, I don't want to. Even so, they will recover. "

"But you will go to the military." (There was no military department at our institute and all graduates had to enter military service like the others.) "If you help us, you don't have to join the army. You want? "" I don't want to. Everyone has to, I'll go too. What you propose to me is illegal. How can you, as a representative of an official institution, propose illegal things? "" Good. So imagine: you will be in the army. There are weapons. Sub-machine guns. And they shoot. You will be on guard and suddenly someone will fire at you. And it will kill you. What a shame! "

This sounds silly from a distance. But there, in that miserable little room, my fantasy worked to the fullest. It was only by the will that I did not allow the chatter. Just in our family suffering in the 37th was always said: such a proposal can never be accepted. Not for nothing. Once you give up and never get rid of it again. They will never let you go - they will blackmail you with the paper they give to everyone willing to cooperate. I had only one thing in my head: "I will not be human, but shit. All my life. "I tried not to listen to what she was saying. Will I get fired from the Institute? I'll survive. I'm going to be a sweeper or a boiler room. Like Víta Coj.9) To distract myself, I began to rock in my chair like an old Jew in prayer.

Suddenly he asked, "Do you want some fresh air? Go to the window. "As a robot, I went to the window. "OK? Sun, air, people. Free, without remorse. Turn around. "I turned to him, his back to the window. Suddenly, he slowly pushed me toward the window, still interpreting something. I almost thought he wanted to throw me out the window.

But it was obviously his last attempt on his part.

"All right ... Write a receipt." I'm not signing anything. "" I need to bill. Reports are also made here. Without that confirmation, I can't let you out. Or we'll go to Lithuanian if you want. You will sit there for as long as you need, and you will write the receipt anyway. ' He handed me a pen.

I will still remember the text of the confirmation, or perhaps I will never be able to forget it:

"I, Goncharok, Mikhail Markovic, undertake not to disclose the content of the conversation with a KGB employee." Date, signature.

He led me out. We went up the stairs together. Before we broke up in the yard, he said as he lit himself:

"Weird. We didn't agree. I haven't seen one like this for a long time ... And your friends are so soft. You'd be watching that Rubert. He cried, rolled at my feet, wanted to kiss our shoes. Carefully. If you continue your stupid games, your heads will fall. I promise you that. Bye."

And he left.

On wooden feet I walked back to our building. Lectures are over. In the courtyard sat World Kandaur. On a suitcase with anti-Soviet literature.

She got it.

I think they just didn't need a case then. He wasn't planning or anything. It was not our children's revolutionary games. If necessary, they would start off right. It was only later that I learned that in the same year they opened the case of the Martynova dissident group in Piter. They started it all together.

I remember when I came home I said to my mom, "Don't get upset. I will be fired from the institute. "It was before the defense of the thesis.

In a few days Lena called Rubert as if nothing had happened. He began to say that the officer who had interrogated him had left him his business card and was now friends. I had no idea why he was calling. Whether he's really such a bastard or an incredible fool. "Leona, don't call me again." He laughed in confusion. I hung up. He didn't call me again.

And what is strange - I wasn't fired from the Institute. They gave me the opportunity to complete it and defend my diploma. I was sure he wouldn't let me do that, and I was like a thorn every day. After all, for much smaller things and without "sectarianism", they flashyly threw my wife out of the same institute just four years ago. Only a few more times they sent a messenger to me. They were inexperienced, and I realized they were talking to me "according to the assignment". The year-old leader, a Russian boy, came to me, not looking into my eyes and explaining that they were persecuting Jews in our country, preventing Jewish teachers from progressing, even professors (where could they go?!). It was so stupid and eye-catching that I pathetically replied to him, "This is a Zionist provocation. The Jews live very well with us. "Suddenly he left. I don't want to talk about other cases.

They also listened to my phone. I talked to Igor Tantlevsky once, I think about girls (sorry). Igor began to portray his victories too openly and I was not left behind. Suddenly, an unfamiliar female piercing voice entered the conversation:

"Guys! What is it! Are you not ashamed? That's what a guy calls himself! Yuck!!!"

So it puzzled us that we hung up almost simultaneously - the voice was still screaming. The audibility was excellent.

I have to say that I totally agree with the woman - certainly from the corresponding KGB department (recording or whatever they call it there). I don't remember exactly what we said, but it must have been quite disgusting and undignified when even the secretions got mad.

One more thing I was and remained strange. Literally a few days after the "talk", the activist of the Leningrad Zionist movement called me Volod Korenman, a good friend of mine (now doing a tourist guide, lives near Jerusalem), and suggested that we go to welcome former President of Israel Efraim Katzir, a well-known scientist Union at a scientific conference (biochemical, I think). Katzir, who appeared in Piter, wanted to combine the pleasant with the useful and to meet Jewish activists.

I arranged a preliminary meeting with Korenman. We met, I told him everything. He whistled. He said he had no fear personally, but I had to decide for myself: going to meet Katzir or not. Young pride did not give me, I decided to go (if I go today, I'm not sure). The meeting was to take place at the Primorská metro station, on Vasilyevsky Island. This is no longer an issue: I will just say that Mr. Katzir and his wife did not allow us to meet us... But they all took pictures of us in advance. The strange thing about this event was, and it remains, that it all happened a few days after my "talk" with the secret, who assured me that "heads would fall" if I continued to deal with politics.

The heads did not fall.

And that's all. I went on to discuss the theory and history of anarchism, but I just forbade organizing similar groups and circles. I learned ivrit and yiddish, I came to Israel in 1990 and started to study science. Here in Jerusalem I work in the central archive of the history of Zionism, I wrote enough articles in Russian, ivrit and Yiddish in scientific and popular magazines, published three books and a booklet on the history of anarchism in its various forms. The official theme of my scientific work is the history of the Jewish anarchist movement (Yiddish anarchism). I write with the whole world, with scholars, anarchists, with their libraries and archives, and nobody prevents me from pursuing any subject. They just help me at work. I do not hide my ideology and political orientation and it does not shock anyone. I'm happy here, and for normal people, what matters most in contact with me is

An extraordinary consequence of unpleasant conflicts with the officially non-existent KGB was a series of interviews with Israeli secret service staff. I was supposed to answer their officer's question on arrival (such questions are given to all men between 20 and 50 years after landing a plane with new repatriates at Ben Gurion Airport): "Have you had any conflicts with the security authorities or the police in the USSR?" Yes, I had, and I said because of anarchism. God, what happened! I was perhaps the first anarchist to come to Israel from Russia that year. Surely half the secret from that department was running to see me. The next year I was continuously invited to various places because of the question: "What is anarchism? Why am I an anarchist? What am I going to do with my anarchism here in Israel? "The discussions were much calmer than in Russia, but it gradually started to upset me. It seemed to me that the Soviet secret and their Israeli colleagues taught the same teachers to communicate. I didn't forget to tell them, and at the last summons I added that if I had committed a crime, let them tell me, and if they didn't - let them stop.

They stopped.

Moshe Goncharok
Jerusalem, August 2002

Comment:

1) Leo Chernyy (, pr.n. Pavel Dmitrijevic Turcaninov), 1878-1921, supporter of anarchoindividualism; imprisoned in Russia during his studies between 1901 and 1903; later worked in the Anarchist League in Paris; after his return to Russia, he co-founded the House of Anarchy in Moscow, published the newspaper Klic (Calling); along with nine other anarchists, he was shot on September 27, 1921. His book New Direction in Anarchism: Association Anarchism was published in Russia in 1907 and for the second time in 1923 in New York.

2) Pirum NM, Bakunin . Moscow 1970, 400 pages; Pirumová NM, Petr Alexejevic Kropotkin. Moskva 1972, 224 pages. Natalie Mikhailovna Pirum (), 1923-1997, historian of anarchism.

3) Leningrad - the city of three revolutions - the second largest city of Russia Saint-Petersburg (called St. Petersburg in 1914-1924, Leningrad in 1924-1991, colloquially Piter) was founded in 1703 and in 1712-1917 it was the capital of the empire. The term "city of three revolutions" refers to the revolution in 1905, in February 1917 and in November (VRSR) 1917.

4) Cornyy peredel was originally a revolutionary Narodnic organization founded in St. Petersburg in 1879. The members were eg GV Plechanov, LG Dejc, VI Zasulicová, the press authority was Zerno newspaper and the magazine Cornyj peredel . Part of the members, the so-called Aristocrats, went to the organization Narodnaya volja (People's Freedom), focused on terrorist actions against tsarism (13 March 1881 carried out a successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II.). Narodnici (Rus. Nativ = people) was a political and cultural movement with the organization Zemjla i volja (Soil and Freedom), which since the 1860s. sought to overthrow tsarism and land reform. The ideologues of the movement included MA Bakunin, and one of the lines of nationalism resulted in an anarchist movement.

5) Andrei Ivanovich Željabov and Sofija Lvovna Perov were Russian birthdays, members of the executive committee of Narodnaya Volya. In 1881 they were sentenced to death and executed for participating in the preparation of the assassination of Tsar Alexander II.

6) Leningrad Rock Club () was officially established in March 1981, when the first concert took place. The effort to establish it dates back to 1973. Despite the supervision of the KGB and party organs, the club was a unique opportunity to operate rock music and since 1983 to organize rock festivals.

7) The suggestion of song lyrics legendary rocker Leningrad Soviet period Viktor Tsoi. (See Note 9) (Mom anarchy Dad portskýho cup) of a plate Night of r. 1986th

8) The Temple of the Savior on Blood was built by Tsar Alexander III. in the place where the assassin was assassinated in 1881 against his father, Emperor Alexander II.

9) Viktor Coj (), 1962-1990, composer and singer of the Leningrad rock group Kino; In the early 1980s, one of the most authentic and popular musicians of the genre, which at that time was more or less underground. By the end of the 1980s, Coj was able to give concerts, record albums, make movies, travel the world. He achieved tremendous popularity (62,000 people attended his concert at the Moscow Luzhniki stadium), but never stopped working as a cauldron and distributed his albums for free. He died in a car accident.

Source: http://socialist.memo.ru/1991/goncharokmoshe.htm

Translation and Notes -dm-

Published in Existence No. 4/2014 on War.

https://www.afed.cz/text/7064/ze-vzpominek-zidovskeho-anarchisty
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