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(en) Greece, APO OS: Anarchica Magazine, issue 211 (1994) - January 13, 1894: Carrara's anarchist rebellion [machine translation]
Tue, 15 Jan 2019 08:09:40 +0200
Lunigiana is a geographical area of Italy located between Liguria and Tuscany. There, in
January 1894, anarchists contributed decisively to a real popular uprising against the
national government. At that time, the whole area of Lunigiana, the area around Carrara
and Apuane, was characterized by a heavy mining and marble trade, resulting in a large
gathering of workers. ---- Carrara has until now been a constant "focus" of anarchism in
Italy, with several organizations active in the city. The anarchist workers at the
quarries were also the driving force behind the workers' organization and the main
protagonists of the Lunigiana uprising in January 1894. The first anarchist group of Italy
was created in Carrara in 1885 when anarchist workers were found there as exiles from
Belgium and Switzerland.
The frequent presence in this area of anarchists such as Bakunin, Kayerro, Malatesta,
Gori, Galeni, Sikcie, Molinari and others, has facilitated the spread of anarchy among
workers, characterizing, even nowadays , this the geographical area as one of the most
anarchist. Anarchist Gallileo Pala noticed for Carrara that there "even the stones are
On the basis of being historic Antonio Bernieri the uprising was the result of spontaneity
and the intense activity of the workers. One thing seems certain: the area of Apuane was
in full blast because of the deep economic crisis that caused the unification of Italy .
In the crisis added the harsh conditions in which they were workers and farmers of Carrara.
On January 3, 1894, Prime Minister Francesco Crispi had declared a siege situation across
Sicily by sending 40,000 soldiers to suppress workers' insurgency against agrarian reform
and increases in basic living things like bread. The "class was restored" using extreme
violence , including extensive executions. At the same time, the anarchist and socialist
movement had conquered the Sicilian working class, causing the struggling workers to
accept the cruel repression by the Crispi government.
This repression led to conducting many demonstrations of solidarity from the Lunigiana
workers, as the Sicilians workers were among them, particularly numerous and militant.
On January 7, 1894, the workers attacked the state authorities, as did the Sicilian
workers a few days before.
As Pier Carlo Masini tells of the uprising:
"On January 13, 1894 was declared in Carrara, protest strike against the siege situation
that existed in Sicily and in solidarity with the arrested workers. The demonstration,
which was also meant to express its dissatisfaction with the 1869 mobilization, led to a
large gathering of strikers in the city of Carrara.
Gradually, the concentration evolved into the formation of roadblocks in Foce, between
Massa and Carrara, and the interruption of telegraph lines. Subsequently, groups of
protesters attacked and plundered the police stations and the guards' army. In Avenza
there was the first armed confrontation with the death of a carabinieri and a protester.
Between 13 and 14 January, guerrilla gatherings took place in Becizzano, Codena and
Miseglia, and they moved to the city shouting "Late Sicily! Long live the revolution!
"With the conviction and hope that similar events would break out in other parts of Italy.
On the 15th of the month there was a second clash between a team descending from Fossola
to Carrara and the cavalry: another dead among the workers. On the 16th, on the outskirts
of the city, near the Dogali barracks, a group of 400 protesters, armed with trumpets,
forks and some rifles, met with a squad of soldiers. Eight demonstrators were killed, many
were injured. The group was dissolved. Some fled to the mountains where they were captured
in the next few days. "
Suppression and trials take place before the military courts with heavy sentences. About
three hundred are condemned for disasters, and two hundred and nine anarchists have been
condemned as such. Those who do not go to prison are forced to a home constraint. For the
mere fact of being present at the demonstrations, they were sentenced to twenty years.
In three months, the courts issued a total of 454 convictions with over 2,500 years of
imprisonment. Among the convicted, many belonged to the anarchist movement, such as Luigi
Molinari, who was perhaps the most well-known and also one of the most severely condemned:
23 years in the first place, which fell to seven in the appeal.
Following the murderous assault by Prime Minister Crispi in Rome on 16 June 1894 and the
assassination of French President Carnot a few days earlier than anarchists, the
government found the opportunity to vote for the so-called anti-anarchist and
anti-socialist law , resulting in intensity of persecution against anarchists. According
to this law, the police received increased power of preventive arrests and expulsions with
the main argument of "incitement of class hate."
- Rev. Anarchica Magazine, issue 211 (1994)
- http://ita.anarchopedia.org , Anarchist Motions of Lunigiana (1894)
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