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(en) Greece, APO OS: Anarchica Magazine, issue 211 (1994) - January 13, 1894: Carrara's anarchist rebellion [machine translation]

Date Tue, 15 Jan 2019 08:09:40 +0200


Lunigiana is a geographical area of Italy located between Liguria and Tuscany. There, in January 1894, anarchists contributed decisively to a real popular uprising against the national government. At that time, the whole area of Lunigiana, the area around Carrara and Apuane, was characterized by a heavy mining and marble trade, resulting in a large gathering of workers. ---- Carrara has until now been a constant "focus" of anarchism in Italy, with several organizations active in the city. The anarchist workers at the quarries were also the driving force behind the workers' organization and the main protagonists of the Lunigiana uprising in January 1894. The first anarchist group of Italy was created in Carrara in 1885 when anarchist workers were found there as exiles from Belgium and Switzerland.

The frequent presence in this area of anarchists such as Bakunin, Kayerro, Malatesta, Gori, Galeni, Sikcie, Molinari and others, has facilitated the spread of anarchy among workers, characterizing, even nowadays , this the geographical area as one of the most anarchist. Anarchist Gallileo Pala noticed for Carrara that there "even the stones are anarchist."

On the basis of being historic Antonio Bernieri the uprising was the result of spontaneity and the intense activity of the workers. One thing seems certain: the area of Apuane was in full blast because of the deep economic crisis that caused the unification of Italy . In the crisis added the harsh conditions in which they were workers and farmers of Carrara.

On January 3, 1894, Prime Minister Francesco Crispi had declared a siege situation across Sicily by sending 40,000 soldiers to suppress workers' insurgency against agrarian reform and increases in basic living things like bread. The "class was restored" using extreme violence , including extensive executions. At the same time, the anarchist and socialist movement had conquered the Sicilian working class, causing the struggling workers to accept the cruel repression by the Crispi government.

This repression led to conducting many demonstrations of solidarity from the Lunigiana workers, as the Sicilians workers were among them, particularly numerous and militant.

On January 7, 1894, the workers attacked the state authorities, as did the Sicilian workers a few days before.

As Pier Carlo Masini tells of the uprising:

"On January 13, 1894 was declared in Carrara, protest strike against the siege situation that existed in Sicily and in solidarity with the arrested workers. The demonstration, which was also meant to express its dissatisfaction with the 1869 mobilization, led to a large gathering of strikers in the city of Carrara.

Gradually, the concentration evolved into the formation of roadblocks in Foce, between Massa and Carrara, and the interruption of telegraph lines. Subsequently, groups of protesters attacked and plundered the police stations and the guards' army. In Avenza there was the first armed confrontation with the death of a carabinieri and a protester.

Between 13 and 14 January, guerrilla gatherings took place in Becizzano, Codena and Miseglia, and they moved to the city shouting "Late Sicily! Long live the revolution! "With the conviction and hope that similar events would break out in other parts of Italy. On the 15th of the month there was a second clash between a team descending from Fossola to Carrara and the cavalry: another dead among the workers. On the 16th, on the outskirts of the city, near the Dogali barracks, a group of 400 protesters, armed with trumpets, forks and some rifles, met with a squad of soldiers. Eight demonstrators were killed, many were injured. The group was dissolved. Some fled to the mountains where they were captured in the next few days. "

Suppression and trials take place before the military courts with heavy sentences. About three hundred are condemned for disasters, and two hundred and nine anarchists have been condemned as such. Those who do not go to prison are forced to a home constraint. For the mere fact of being present at the demonstrations, they were sentenced to twenty years.

In three months, the courts issued a total of 454 convictions with over 2,500 years of imprisonment. Among the convicted, many belonged to the anarchist movement, such as Luigi Molinari, who was perhaps the most well-known and also one of the most severely condemned: 23 years in the first place, which fell to seven in the appeal.

Following the murderous assault by Prime Minister Crispi in Rome on 16 June 1894 and the assassination of French President Carnot a few days earlier than anarchists, the government found the opportunity to vote for the so-called anti-anarchist and anti-socialist law , resulting in intensity of persecution against anarchists. According to this law, the police received increased power of preventive arrests and expulsions with the main argument of "incitement of class hate."

Sources:

- Rev. Anarchica Magazine, issue 211 (1994)

- http://ita.anarchopedia.org , Anarchist Motions of Lunigiana (1894)

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