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(en) Argentina, Society of Resistance Various Crafts of Capital SROV [F.O.R.A.]: MILITARY STRIKE OF 1930: REPRESSION AND GROWTH OF THE UNION BUREAUCRACY (ca, it) [machine translation]

Date Sat, 3 Nov 2018 09:09:41 +0200

Juan D. Perón celebrating the rise of General Uriburu
The military coup of 1930 begins a cycle in Argentine history of alternation between military governments and fraudulent elections that were changing the economic and social structure of the country, and of course the labor movement was not alien to these changes. The years prior to the coup were of great unemployment for the people, since the crisis of 1929 started in the United States had reached these shores. The same was already seen coming, between the denunciations of the means of the "senility" of Irigoyen and those of corruption of the radicals. On September 6, 1930 under Uriburu began the "conservative restoration", the first thing he did was to make the warning to thunder the revolutionary organizations and their militants.

The repression

His first actions were the publication of the military side whose recipients were the unions, the revolutionary organizations and all those who disagree and act against their arbitrariness. The anarchist and communist workers were the most persecuted.

The military side published, said:

"Any individual who is caught infraganti crime, against the safety and property of the inhabitants, or that violates public services and security, will be passed by arms without any form of process."

Throughout the '30s, there were many abuses committed against workers and organizations not fearful or respectful of the regime, both during the dictatorship and during democracy managed by the conservatives. On September 9, in Rosario, the anarchist and militant forist Joaquín Penina was arrested and shot, disappeared for more than 40 years, becoming the first disappeared detainee in Argentine history. The imprisonment of militants and workers at the Ushuaia prison, the deportations to foreigners and the executions and forced disappearances were happening. The anarchists Scarfó and Di Giovanni were shot, there was the forced disappearance of Rosigna, Malvicini, Vázquez Paredes and the murder of the maritime worker Morán.

The trade unions attached to the FORA were illegal and subjected to unlawful association processes, such as the cases of Union Chauffers, (in which three militants were sentenced to death, a sentence later commuted to life imprisonment), bakers, car washers , Ladrilleros and the so-called "Bragado process" where one hundred anarchists were arrested throughout the country and for which three workers were sentenced to prison.

The unions during the dictatorship

During the 1930s there was a gradual consolidation of the unions that had a better relationship with the State than other workers' organizations. However, and despite the preference of the leaders to channel claims through state administrative channels, the idea of independence of workers' organizations of political parties and the State remained strong among workers. Almost immediately after the coup, the Argentine Workers Confederation (COA) and the Union Union of Argentina (USA) united, giving shape to the General Confederation of Labor (CGT). The repressive nature of the dictatorship made many unions adopt a defensive position against it to avoid the repression suffered by the FORA, although from now on, they did not possess the same revolutionary character. In his first statement, the day of his birth, he declared his "neutrality" and said:

"The General Confederation of Labor of the Argentine Republic (...) considers it its duty to satisfy its character as an autonomous organization of the working class, independent of any political party or ideological grouping, and therefore, dispensing with the actions that these lead to cape."

It should be noted that although the FORA was also indifferent to participating in the internal struggles that took place between the bourgeoisie, this was due to the position it always held with respect to workers' emancipation and that put it in the sights of the powerful classes and the Been many years before the coup. Although they had a large number of unions, the brand new power station was powerless and chose to avoid the frontal confrontation with the de facto government and raised notes with petitions to the State about the multiple problems that afflicted the working class, among them unemployment, inflation, rents , etc.

In spite of this political disregard, the leaders of the CGT at that time, did have the interest of participating in dependencies of the State to, perhaps, ensure the most effective resolution of workers' problems without falling into the direct action that brought them so many problems. . Because of this, they were much more favorable than before to negotiating with the government and began to carry out administrative claims in the National Labor Department in a more regular manner.

A sample of the conciliatory attitude that they had before the abuses committed, in this case against the workers of the FORA condemned to death, was the request elevated to the Executive Power asking for mercy instead of acting with dignity and pressing to prevent the condemnation, like years before it had been done by the anarchist workers Sacco and Vanzetti:

"The General Confederation of Labor, representative body of the healthy forces of the country, aware of the work of administrative renewal of the provisional government and willing to support it as it is in its action of institutional and social justice, on behalf of the affiliates of the various guilds who compose it, and exercising the right of petition, appears before VS to request, as an act of clemency, that the death penalty imposed by the military court on drivers Florindo Ganoso, José Montero and José Santos Are, be commuted by the penalty that VS determines.

Convinced this Confederation that the provisional government does not keep in force the martial law but to ensure public tranquility and to enforce the prestige and authority of the government; even more, understanding that the procedures and sentences have been adjusted to the military regulations, promotes this management invoking as a single reason the fact that the convicted do not register a police record ".

Such attitude on the part of the leaders fell very badly among the workers and before the indignation generated by this appeal, they clarified that the Board "did not hesitate to dispense with certain principles, no doubt respectable, but that would have prevented their free development before the dilemma that was presented to him, to save three human lives. " A sample of the attitude that over the years and with the gradual abandonment of direct action, was becoming increasingly recurrent to reach today, where these principles are not present in the ideas of the current trade union bureaucracy , heiress of that of the '30s.

The organizations repressed and placed in illegality in any way were able to carry out the actions against the dictatorship that the CGT preferred to avoid. We can cite among them a campaign of agitation in repudiation of the repressive measures adopted by the de facto government carried out by the FORA . On October 7, one month after the military coup, the Local Workers' Federation of Buenos Aires (FOLB) called the first strike against the dictatorship, and despite the raids and arrests made the previous day by the forces repressive, the strike was considered total among the workers of the port and the drivers of taxis, trucks and buses. Two weeks later, the FORAdeclares a general strike of national projections in protest for the freedom of the prisoners, the freedom of the press, of strike and of meeting, the cessation of the deportations and the annulment of the martial law. Convened for the days 21 and 22 of October, it had the support of all the unions of the FORAof the city and the Buenos Aires suburbs, besides the participation of many autonomous unions and those related to the communists enrolled in the CUSC. This strike managed to transcend the metropolitan area getting an important impact in the cities of Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata and Santa Fe. These demonstrations showed that all was not lost as vast sectors of the people were willing to take to the streets to claim their freedoms , risking their lives to put a brake on the advanced fascist.

The first years of the 30s, marked the history of the country laying the foundations of successive military dictatorships that attacked the people, until the most terrible in 1976. At the same time began to change economic policy without breaking the dependence on foreigners that the conservatives themselves had maintained throughout the decades prior to the coup. As for the workers' movement, the State intensified its mediating role in the conflicts, giving more and more space to those who were related to it to channel the protest and set aside its affiliated workers.

An attitude that would then intensify more and more to turn that union bureaucracy into "the backbone" of the movement that would begin, in the next decade, a member of the military dictatorship that toured Spain and Italy in the dark years of European fascism; to become from the '60 and '70 one more agent in the murder and delivery of his own people.

------------------------ About us -------------------------------

The " Society of Resistance Various Crafts of Capital " is an inter-union group, which brings together workers from different unions with the aim of confronting employer abuses and generate resistance against this system of exploitation.

We seek that the workers' organization be again a tool of struggle against capitalism and cease to be an apparatus of class conciliation appendages of the State.

We fight the Argentine union model because it is a tool of the State to favor the bosses along with the union bureaucracy, entrenched in the power of the unions for years and accomplice of all the abuses against the working class. These trade unionists negotiate joint and working conditions behind us, generating a vertical, conformist and paternalistic culture where we are accustomed to receiving solutions passively, managing to channel the anger by demobilizing the workers.

We believe that only through the struggle can we generate a differential force and tilt the balance towards the side of the working class.

How we organize ourselves
Our form of organization, continuing and reaffirming the practices and principles of the first worker associations of our country, are:

-The assembly as a space for reflection, debate and decision-making.

-Direct action as a daily practice and means of struggle for the defense of our rights and the conquest of any proposed objective.

-We join the FORA (Argentine Regional Workers Federation) because federalism , as a system of horizontal organization, has the potential to project towards other cities, provinces and countries the egalitarian and anti-authoritarian social relations that we develop within our Resistance Society. The Federation has the ability to coordinate common struggles, maintaining the power of decision in the different organizations that make it up, without leaders or leaders who decide for the majority.

What we want
We intend to build spaces for participation and collective decision-making in the trade union activity , whether in the form of groups, internal commissions, parallel unions, etc., betting on the will, commitment, equality and solidarity among the workers.

Although our primary objective is the conquest of immediate union demands, our purpose is a social change at the root eliminating structures and institutions based on the principle of authority, such as the State, Capital, patriarchy and the Church.

To build this new society without exploitation, oppression, classes or hierarchies, based on the emancipatory principles of anarchic communism , we need to recover a horizontal, federalist, assembly and direct action syndicalism.

For all this, we invite all workers who want to organize against these injustices to participate and rebuild a combative and revolutionary labor movement.

For social emancipation
Assemblies to decide
Direct action to win

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