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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #287 - Ideas: The company facing the industry ! (fr, it, pt)[machine translation]
Sat, 27 Oct 2018 09:24:35 +0300
We begin here a series of articles of reflection on the industry in the society: on what
conditions an industry could be integrated within an ecological society, serving the needs
of the population and respecting the imperatives of the world alive ? This first article
aims to recall how the consequences of pollution were managed before the industrial
revolution. ---- A pollutant, even if it is not identified as such, is an agent of
external origin to an ecosystem that has negative impacts on all or part of an ecosystem
. The regularization of polluting processes is an ancient history within human
societies. The turn of the French revolution, which has brought the capitalist class to
power, will however return full foot in the era of pollution as the least harm related to
the good development of the interests of the state. But before that ?
The pollution begins with prehistory, with fire control: " The soot found on the ceiling
of prehistoric caves is a clear proof that the homes caused a high level of pollution due
to insufficient ventilation. " The metallurgy of the bronze age and the age of the
iron, a turning point in the pollution of the external environment. The coring of the
Greenland glaciers revealed an increase in the pollution associated with the metallurgy of
the Greeks, Romans and Chinese . But at that time, pollution was comparatively low, and
had no significant environmental impact at the global level.
Urban concentrations have also been a major source of pollution throughout our history.
The cities concentrated the presence and the dung of many men and horses, leading to
pollution of the air and water. Massive combustion of wood and coal also leads to air
pollution. In England, Edward 1 st enacted in 1272 a proclamation prohibiting the use of
bituminous coal in London .
Which pollution management ?
" Many ancient documents show that from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution, the
conflicts are old and numerous, but that we have most often sought to limit or reduce the
nuisance of the craft activities, with measures (fines, displacements of activity,
closures ...) and a dialogue between the parties, or investigations of the administration.
" " According to historical records (legal, administrative records), these disturbances
were pretty heavily controlled and relatively mastered in Paris in the XIV thcentury, by
the police as part of its public safety missions. Until this date, the royal or urban
governance calls for consultation, seeking a pragmatic balance between economic
constraints by the police . "
The revolution of 1789 will spell the end of all pre-existing forms of regulation: in the
spring of 1791 the constituent assembly decided the suppression of guilds, corporations,
inspectors ... The time of the chemical engineers, already in ambush, has arrived. This is
what we will see in the next article.
Reinette reinvested (Al Aveyron) and Jacques Dubart (AL Nantes)
 Dictionary of standardized vocabulary of the Environment of AFNOR in France.
 " Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective ", Science, Vol. 221, No. 4605,
 " History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times
Recorded in Greenland Ice, " Science, Vol. 272, No. 5259, 1996.
 David Urbinato, " London's Historic" Pea-Soupers, " United States Environmental
Protection Agency, Summer 1994.
 Wikipedia, " Industrial pollution ".
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