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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #285 - Chronicle: Neither God nor Schoolmaster, "Francisco Ferrer and Libertarian School" Part 2 (fr, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Sat, 1 Sep 2018 09:34:30 +0300

We have seen the intellectual and political formation of Francisco Ferrer, let us look at the creation of the Modern School. It will radiate in the Europe of the " Belle Epoque " and, disseminating, reach Belém, who knew this particular period of the early XX th century also saw the creation of a rational school in one of his popular barrios . ---- 1901, Barcelona. The first modern school welcomes its students and for the first time in Spain, it will not be under the aegis of the monarchical state or the Catholic Church but according to the principles of a man steeped in humanism and trained in anarchism with scientific features of his time. The Church, which can then be described as a machine for creating obedient illiterates and fearing divine wrath, exercises a kind of hegemony over education that it does not taste very much when it comes into question. by a man linked to a current of protesting thought. In fact, the authorizations were more than difficult to obtain, and working on material without religious connotations proved to be an arduous undertaking, so much so that the didactic books were elaborated especially by and for the school.

One of the main characteristics that revels the clergy and the well-meaning society is the mixed nature. Co-education, as it is then called, is evoked thus by Ferrer in a letter sent in 1900 to his friend José Prats: " My plan is that the school is primary education[...], mixed is to say, with boys and girls together, as at Cempuis. " Here we see how Ferrer instead this mode the center of his educational work by repeating the experience of Paul Robin and his orphanage Cempuis. But in this letter, we find another central objective for the Catalan educator: the class struggle. " If during the day it will serve as a school for children, in the evening, it will serve adults by giving lessons in French, English, German, taquigraphy and accounting. At the same time, conferences will be given and there will be a room available for trade unions and groups of workers, resistance societies that do not deal with elections or class improvements, but work to its complete emancipation. "

Thus, the rational school of Ferrer clearly proposes an objective based on anarchist principles and posits as a principle the education of both youth and adults by joining in a single place school education and popular education. Like, in France, a certain Fernand Pelloutier and his Bourses du travail.

From this school-matrix will emerge everywhere modern schools in Spain (many modern schools already exist there during the lifetime of Ferrer: 32 of them are thus listed in the Iberian kingdom at the time of his death) as well as in the world, and the execution of Ferrer in 1909, under a false pretext, will give even more strength to this movement: New York sees the birth of a Modern School in 1911, Lausanne in 1910, and in 1912 it is the turn of the Brazil's economic capital, São Paulo, to found its modern school ... the beginning of a movement in which Belém do Pará will participate a few years later ...


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