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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #285 - 1994: The French State complicit in the genocide in Rwanda (fr, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Thu, 30 Aug 2018 10:37:20 +0300

France has a heavy responsibility in the last genocide of the XX th century, but only now being brought to light, many politicians and magistrates working in this direction. ---- The attack against the presidential plane of Habyarimana on 6 April 1994 triggered the last genocide of the XX th century. Nearly one million victims, mostly Tutsis, die according to a political logic put in place several years before. France, which largely participated in Hutu / Tutsi cleavages [1], was aware of the massacres and yet delivered arms before and during the genocide, protected the genocidaires and declassified the archives drop by drop. As said François Mitterrand " In these countries, genocide is not too important" !
Tutsis began to be stigmatized when Belgium introduced the identity card in 1931, to which the League of Nations had entrusted Rwanda with " trusteeship ". After decades of exclusion, arrests and massacres, Major Ntabakuse (commander of a Rwandan army unit) calls for the revenge of President Habyarimana, killed in the attack on his plane , killing Tutsis.

The French commander Grégoire de Saint-Quentin was present and probably made his round trips to the scene of the crash with Ntabakuse ; it was at this time that all the exhibits, missile debris and black boxes, in particular, were stolen and hidden by France. The genocide begins just an hour after the crash. Everything was ready: arms distribution, list of people to execute, massive propaganda, etc.

An obvious French implication
France delivered weapons until May 23 (Hubert Védrine, then secretary general of the Elysee, and Jean-Claude Urbano, vice-consul of France in Goma, justified these deliveries by stating that the contracts had been made before the embargo, decreed on May 17). Ambassador Marlaud forms the Rwandan interim government on April 8th at the French embassy (which will be closed on the 12th just after Marlaud himself burned all the archives) by not respecting at all the 1993 Arusha Accords: the 5 ministerial wallets promised to the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), party Tutsi, for example, are non-existent. Of the 21 ministers of this government, 16 will be charged with genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. French banks (BNP and Crédit Lyonnais) are giving loans to the Rwandan government of 6 million euros to buy weapons. These weapons will arrive at the Goma airport (in Zaire) which is controlled by the French ...

Official military operations are equally scandalous. The Noroît operation, which aims to stop the RPF (from 4 October 1990), is illegal since France did not have a defense agreement with Rwanda. The Amaryllis operation (April 9 to 14, 1994, in the midst of genocide) allows to deliver weapons to the genocidaires and exfiltrate 120 close to Habyarimana. Finally, Operation Turquoise (22 June-22 August 1994), defined as " humanitarian operation in the sense of security " according to Colonel François Luizet, will fight against the RPF, the only force that tries to stop the genocide. It allows Tutsis to be massacred, does not disarm the assassins, does not arrest genocide suspects and even helps them to flee to Zaire. White Kepi, a monthly from the Foreign Legion confirms:" Beaten on the ground, the Rwandan army folds, in disorder, towards the" safe humanitarian zone. " The tactical headquarters of Operation Turquoise causes and organizes the evacuation of the Rwandan interim government to Zaire [2].

Indeed, the genocide will stop because of the escape of the killers in front of the RPF offensive.

Holism in action
The media describe the situation as " interethnic massacres against a backdrop of civil war ". However, atrocities are not committed by both sides, but only against Tutsis and opponents. Moreover, the phrase " against the backdrop of civil war " reverses the order of things. This is not the war that triggered the killings but the genocide that resulted in the resumption of fighting between the RPF and the Rwandan Armed Forces [3].

Alain Juppé, Minister of Foreign Affairs, maintains this ambiguity by asking " that those responsible for these genocides be judged " [4]. Why genocides in the plural ?

We know that to kill almost a million people in three months, to kill each other neighbors and families, you have to be prepared and organized. We know the supply of weapons, the massive propaganda of the free radio-television of the thousand hills (RTLM), established lists, etc.

So we see that genocide is not the product of a band of uncontrollable fanatics (as we still hear often) but of a totalitarian state. France even admitted that the " Rwandan state was the authorizer of the genocide " [5].

" The survey "
After the unlikely twists of the black box of the presidential plane (confused in New York with that of a Concorde, shown on TV but immediately unmasked as an antenna box !), Hidden clues and evidence to the Ministry of the Defense in Paris, the French State conducts a prosecution against the RPF.

Judge Bruguière, who was given the investigation open (only) on March 27, 1998, is convinced of the responsibility of the RPF in the attack. After an " investigation " where he does not ask for the analysis of the black box or to hear the commander De Saint-Quentin, he seeks in 2006 an arrest warrant against nine senior RPF officials (all very close to Kagame, current President of Rwanda), without having been to Rwanda once !

In 2007, the judges Marc Trévidic and Nathalie Poux take back the file and note many irregularities (unverified testimonies, false affirmations, false declarations, etc.)

In 2012, an international ballistic expertise (the first), requested by judges Poux and Trévidic, concluded that the missiles had left since Kanombe (stronghold of the presidential guard). Tactically, having emerged victorious from the Arusha Accords with five ministerial portfolios, the RPF had no interest in resuming hostilities.

Why were the investigation reports and exhibits never given to a judge ? Why is Judge Bruguière relying exclusively on testimonies, which proved to be false ?

Of the 37 criminal actions initiated since 1995, none are the work of a public prosecutor, but many victims and associations ! If France is struggling to prosecute the perpetrators of the genocide on its soil, it does not allow their extradition to Rwanda: the jurisprudence of the Court of Cassation has indeed ordered the systematic refusal of extradition of alleged genocide in Rwanda ( 21 refusal to date). All this ill will perhaps says a lot about French complicity.

Recent news
Despite the ballistic expertise, the training does not seem to be moving towards the trail of an attack by Hutu extremists. Judges Marc Trévédic and Nathalie Poux asked in November 2014 to declassify the notes of the French secret services on the attack. The documents were released in September 2015 but not yet published.

In April 2015, the Élysée and Matignon lifted protection on 83 other documents and promised to declassify everything to put an end to the controversy over France's policy in Rwanda. Several refusals of consultation are examined by the Commission for Access to Administrative Documents. We are still waiting for their opinion.

In November 2015, Survie, the FIDH and the LDH asked for an indictment for complicity in the genocide of two French senior officers, General Jacques Rosier and Vice Admiral Marin Gillier. They observed the massacres of abandoned Tutsis on the Bisesero hills. For the moment, the magistrates have not granted this request (they have only been heard as witnesses assisted) despite another complaint filed by six Tutsis survivors of the massacre. French soldiers are accused of murder, rape and ill-treatment.

Father Wenceslas Munyeshyaka was sentenced to life imprisonment by Rwandan courts. France refusing to extradite her, pronounced a dismissal on August 19, 2015. Survie appealed.

Former captain Pascal Simbikangwa is the first to be sentenced in France to 25 years imprisonment for genocide in 2014. This sentence was confirmed on December 3, 2016.

Thanks to the efforts of the Collective of Civil Parties for Rwanda (SCRC), Octavien Ngenzi was arrested in Mayotte while he was on the run for twenty years and Tito Barahira who was spending quiet days in Toulouse. Both are therefore appearing for genocide and crimes against humanity, in particular for the massacre of 3,500 Tutsi on April 13, 1994 in the Kabarondo church. One was the former bourgmestre (mayor) and the other the burgomaster in office at the time of the genocide. They were sentenced to life imprisonment on July 6, 2016.

On October 31, 2016, the National Commission against Genocide (CNLG) released a list of 22 French officers " involved in the genocide as authors or accomplices " with request for interrogations. Jean-Yves Le Drian replied: " To say that the French army took part in the genocide is an unworthy lie that I will never tolerate " ...

In December 2017, a report (which the French media did not mention) on the involvement of the French authorities in the genocide of Tutsis requested by Kigali was made public. It is a recognized and independent law firm that drafted it. It is overwhelming for French-African politics ; it confirms all the facts already established and even insists on the indifference of French cooperation in Rwanda to the various " small " genocides (1963 as well as those of the preparatory period 1990-1993). Rwanda immediately announced the forthcoming issuance of international arrest warrants against French officials. France will she end up being at the foot of the wall ?

Finally, on December 20, 2017, Judge Herbaut decided to close the investigation of the attack despite the non-identification of the perpetrators ...

Benoît (Friend of AL)

1931: introduction of the identity card with mention of the ethnic group, defined by Europe

1959: massacres of Tutsis

1962: independence of Rwanda. Economic cooperation agreements France / Rwanda

1973: Massacres of Tutsis. Habyarimana's coup

1975: Franco-Rwandan agreements for the formation of the gendarmerie

1990: RPF offensive. Beginning of the War. Operation Noroit

1992: massive imports of arms

1993: Arusha Peace Agreement

The 1994 genocide

April 6: Attack against Habyarimana's plane

Night of April 6 to 7: beginning of the genocide

April 8: Formation of the Rwandan Interim Government at the French Embassy

April 9 to 14: Operation Amaryllis

April 27: Bruno Delahaye, Edouard Balladur and Alain Juppé receive Jerome Bicamumpaka and Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza, respectively Minister of Foreign Affairs of GIR and head of the CDR and founder of RTLM. Both will be charged with genocide

May 17: embargo on arms sales

June 22 to August 22: Operation Turquoise

June 28: UN concludes genocide

July 4: capture of the capital by the RPF

August: end of the genocide due to the escape of killers in Zaire, helped by France

November 8: UN establishes the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Make justice

1995: filing of complaints against genocide suspects

1998: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda sentences the prime minister of the GIR to life imprisonment. Beginning of the French " investigation ".

2004-2005: complaints filed by Tutsi victims targeting soldiers of Operation Turquoise

2006: arrest warrants against 9 senior RPF officials. Tensions between Paris and Kigali

2012: The first international ballistic investigation concludes that shots have been fired by the Kanombe presidential plane, a stronghold of Hutu extremist militants

2014: first trial of an alleged genocidaire in France

2016: two new convictions are handed down in France (where the majority of genocidaires have taken refuge)

[1] See article series in AL of April, May and June 2004.

[2] Képi Blanc, n ° 549, October 1994, after France at the heart of the Tutsi genocide, Jacques Morel, March 2010.

[3] Charlie Hebdo, September 9, 2009.

[4] " Intervene in Rwanda ", Alain Juppé, Libération, June 16, 1994.

[5] Paul Quilès, Pierre Brana, Bernard Cazeneuve, Investigation of the Rwandan tragedy 1990-1994, information report to the National Assembly, December 15, 1998.

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