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(en) Ruptura Colectiva (RC): The Mapuche and a speech of terror / Ariel Petruccelli (ca, fr, it, pt) [machine translation]

Date Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:19:51 +0300

While Santiago Maldonado is still missing (and everything suggests that the National Gendarmerie is involved in the event) and Facundo Jones Huala continues to spend his days in jail, government officials and tabloid journalists such as the ineffable Jorge Lanata are competing to install the idea Of a new public enemy: the Mapuche terrorist. ---- Old tunes are already being amplified, which, at least in the south, have a long history. But now the audience reaches the whole country. It is a good time, then, to clarify issues, refute nonsense and sit position. ---- Quiñe: take charge ---- Although it sounds in bad taste and few are willing to recognize it, Argentina is a colonial state. It undoubtedly exerts an internal colonialism, and occupies territories of native peoples robbed by the force of the arms in the late nineteenth century. This is not subject matter. It is not an interpretation: it is a purely objective description that no honest historian could reject. As a historian and as an Argentinean, I have an obligation to raise this uncomfortable truth (without making concessions, incidentally, to the sonseras of the post-truth, which is nothing other than the old relativism wrapped in new garments, but just as dull).

As for the claim that the Mapuche are actually Chilean, it can only be said that it lacks all historical relevance. The Mapuche inhabited a territory that extended to both sides of the mountain range of the Andes, from many time before the States of Chile and Argentina had existence. Roca's military campaign was a violent invasion aimed at appropriating the rich land of the Mapuche to the Argentine landowning class. A spoil, neither more nor less.

Epu: have we advanced?

Some will say that it is a good thing that the occupation, the dispossession and the ethnocide committed against the original peoples of the present Argentine territory is a disgrace, but that it is necessary to overcome the past and that, in the last years, its character has been legally recognized Of pre-existing peoples and favorable laws have been passed. In view of this, it must be said without fear that although there have been some improvements, the vast majority of the Mapuche population, Qom, Wichi, etc., continue to be poor, without territorial reparations, without autonomy, subject to state pressure And depriving them of their culture. Perhaps the public authorities or the Argentineans sincerely believe that progress has been made. But, in fact, we should ask them: are we sure that they will give us the reason?

Küla: The cards on the table

In my opinion, the Argentine State should be recognized as what it is: a plurinational and multicultural state. There are many inhabitants of the state territory who do not recognize themselves as Argentines, and are also descendants of people who inhabited it for centuries and even millennia.

Overcoming colonialism and the racism that informed it (present in daily life, as its victims know well, and as it persists in ignoring a large part of the population belonging to the majority ethnic group: that is, Argentina) And genuine interculturality. It presupposes a certain symmetry between the parties (now non-existent) and, of course, mutual respect. In order to wipe our honor away from the dirt of colonialism and racism still in force, we must seriously think of genuine paths of historical reparation that include economic, linguistic, cultural, political and territorial.

Meli: Resistance

Every oppressed or exploited group has the moral right to resist and rebel. And the colonizer lacks the legitimacy to rule on the forms of that resistance. Demanding an oppressed group to refrain from any kind of violence is to disarm it beforehand. This does not mean, however, that all type, form and degree of violence perpetrated by the oppressed must be accepted. Absolutely. The actions of political violence will have to be evaluated and judged in their concrete historicity.

Kechu: Terrorism?

Already circulates in Argentina the accusation that for decades is in Chile (another colonial state) currency: there are Mapuche terrorists. The statement lacks rigor, unless we call terrorism anything. At this point I would like to quote José Marimán, a lucid, rigorous and honest Mapuche intellectual: "I strongly emphasize the idea that the Mapuche are acting as terrorists, as some representatives of the elites and groups try to establish in the social political imaginary of power. Manifest that the actions imputed to the Mapuche of sabotage and affecting agricultural machinery, agricultural or forestry facilities, or trucks, do not move in the logic of a more / less accepted definition of terrorism. That is, consciously directed action towards a civilian population,
The vast majority of Mapuche fighting actions are peaceful, and in cases where some type of violence is used, as in Marimán, these are defensive actions that do not aim at the life of civilians ( Which could legitimately be termed terrorism) and are not actions against the armed and security forces (which could be considered as armed struggle). These are always attacks on property: simple forms of direct action or sabotage.
To present these actions as acts of terrorism (and to judge their perpetrators under such a figure, as usually happens in contexts of anti-colonial rebellion, as in both Chile and Argentina) is one more form of colonialism. Member of the dominant ethnic group would be classified as a simple crime or apologized as an act of madness). And colonialism, it is known, is based on violence and sooner or later produces counter-violence by the colonized. I have no problem in repudiating all forms of terrorism: ISIS and the USA. But, there is no Mapuche terrorism.

Kayu: diversities

Although it is obvious, it is worth repeating. The Mapuche world is a world as diverse as any other. There are Mapuches of right and left, rural and urban, essentialists and anti-essentialists, traditionalists and modernists (even postmodernists), authoritarian and democratic, spiritualists and materialists. Inside, different political projects flourish. Before speaking from prejudice and, above all, before embracing or condemning them en bloc, the right thing would be to know them, in their immense diversity. Their culture is a living culture, oppressed but vital. And like any culture, it changes, mutates, changes. To say that someone is not Mapuche because he does not speak Mapuzugun or because he lives in the city is simply not understanding anything at all.

Regle: secession, autonomy, state?

As Diana Lenton recently reminded us in an article of every recommendable point of view ("The New Public Enemy", published in Amphibia) "in spite of the mistreatment received during centuries, and despite this internal diversity that makes possible all kinds of responses, There is evidence to date of the existence of a secessionist project - much less violent - among the Mapuche leaders on this side of the mountain range, just as officials began to shake overnight. " Besides, there is no other side. That is to say, there is not in all the Wallmapu, Mapuche territory on both sides of the Andes, no secessionist project. What is, at most and recognized in United Nations political-legal documents referring to Indigenous Peoples, are proposals for autonomy and self-government:
Pure: anti-capitalism?

Mapuche organizations that have resorted to and resort to sabotage and direct action - such as the Arauco-Malleco Coordinator (CAM) in Ngullumapu, Mapuche territory in Chile, or Mapuche Ancestral Resistance (RAM) in Puelmapu, Mapuche territory in Argentina To wield a strong anti-capitalist discourse: its most immediate enemies, in fact, are the forestry corporations or the foreign latifundist Benetton. It would be wrong, however, to think that all Mapuche, or most, are anti-capitalist. They are not, at least not for now.

Aylla: Solidarity

The Mapuche cause calls for the solidarity of all honest men and women who condemn any form of oppression, whatever it may be and whoever commits it. Solidarity, without paternalism. Fighting side by side, free and equal, for a world that includes us all.
Pukem antü mew 2017, Newken waria, Puelmapu
(Winter 2017, city of Neuquén, Mapuche Territory in Argentina)

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