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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL - 13 th congress (Nantes, 3-5 June 2017), Humanity in the living world (fr, it, pt) [machine translation]

Date Sun, 2 Jul 2017 13:56:00 +0300


Since Libertarian collectively elaborates an ecological reflection and political responses to the ecological crisis that is mounting, these are structured around a certainty: " the ecological urgency is to leave capitalism ". However, an ecological anticapitalism remains to be invented. ---- This means integrating the environmental issue into all of our analyzes. ---- The preservation of the capitalist mode of production imposes what " common " language calls growth. This translates into processes of intensification of the exploitation of human labor ; By the massive exclusion imposed on an increasing share of the population ; And by a pillaging of the resources of the planet and a destruction of the dynamic equilibriums of the living being, of which the human species is a part. We speak of dynamic equilibrium, because species and ecosystems evolve and change perpetually, depending on the evolution of each species, or changes in living conditions (eg geological or climatic changes).

Our denunciation of the capitalist project must put an end to the claim of the capitalist class to exploit the labor of a part of the dominated classes and to exclude the other part from access to work and the satisfaction of their needs. And it must also attack the appropriation and the unlimited exploitation of the resources of the living world and the carelessness which constantly overturn dynamic living equilibriums everywhere. For the maintenance of the capitalist economy requires a perpetual self-increase of capital, and therefore at the same time always more productivity and always more pillage and destruction of the biosphere.

There is an inextricable link between the uncontrolled development of the means of production, the capitalist exploitation of human labor, the exclusion of a large part of the population, and the process of commodification of the whole of life.

Within the framework of capitalism, it is impossible to solve both the ecological crisis which imposes control and self-limitation on the overall level of production and consumption and the economic crisis which requires the opposite. To overcome the one implies necessarily to aggravate the other and vice versa. We must, therefore, denounce the illusions of the political currents - reformist or revolutionary - in the field of capitalism with a human face, whether radical , ecosocial or declining.

Our strategy of combating capitalism is therefore twofold: against the exploitation and exclusion it imposes on the vast majority of humans with its cortege of material and moral miseries, violence and alienation, as well as jointly against Environmental degradation, widespread pollution, climate destabilization and very serious damage to biodiversity.

Our struggle against exploitation and exclusion is built first of all by the organization of the dominated social classes, by the self-organization of their struggles and the solidarity between the exploited.

This implies that, within the dominated classes, there is a growing awareness of the consequences of the ecological crisis ; That the necessity of a rupture with productivism be taken into account within the social movement ; Ideologically the battle against " growth " is won ; Whereas, therefore, the struggles against redundancies are systematically built around reconversion projects ; Demands on the reduction of working time, transport conditions, the right to housing, the right to an environment without pollution and rich in genuine biodiversity, the right to live and work Country or neighborhood,

But it seems illusory to imagine a significant transformation of the mode of production and consumption without advancing in the construction of embryos of a counter-society within which significant fractions of the disadvantaged social classes could access the products of an industry escaping To the rules of capitalism. Obviously these alternative elements can not, by an illusory process of generalization, lead alone to the overthrow of capitalism. But, constructed in convergence with a dynamic of social struggles demanding the socialization of the means of production, they are a necessity to create libertarian imaginary and to structure a counter-power indispensable to the overthrow of capitalism.

Our project of society: it must also truly integrate our will to think the place of humanity, in the heart of the living world, in breach with the capitalist claim of a dominating and exploiting humanity of the living world. This text deals exclusively with the last point.

What place for humanity in the living world

A transformation of the relationship between man and the living world is essential to the survival of mankind and a large number of animal and plant species. From the current imbalance in which we are mostly exploitative and destructive of nature, we must integrate ourselves as a link within the living world, respectful of other forms of life, and recognizing diversity, complementarity and cooperation as a basis for a new Dynamic balance in our relationships to the living.

We must begin by finishing with the vision of a humanity supposedly superior to other animal species. The progress of the life sciences has largely demonstrated today that culture, altruism, intelligence, symbolic languages, to consciousness, in short everything that man claims to be the basis of his superiority, are not The prerogative of humanity. On many cognitive processes, animals have demonstrated greater abilities than humans. For all that, presenting humans as animals " like the others " is contrary to reality: homo sapiens is the only species to have settled in almost all terrestrial ecosystems ; The complexity of its forms of social and political organization is unrivaled and endowed with an unprecedented capacity for destruction.

In the end, what must be put down is the claim of the human being to be superior to the rest of the living, without denying his specific place in the bosom of the living world. We must finish with any conception of hierarchization between species, for each species, including homo sapiens, depends on all other species for its survival. Any utilitarian conception of life is dangerous because it involves a manipulation relationship with the rest of the living world. The living world - vegetable as animal - is this interweaving of relations of competition and cooperation between individuals of the same species as between different species.

Today philosophical currents affirm that humans must abandon all forms of domination over any other animal species, which means, if one goes to the end of logic, by abandoning not only fishing and Hunting, but also all breeding and domestication. Alternative libertarian condemns persecution or fierceness towards other animal species and claims a significant reduction in meat consumption to ensure a sustainable diet for all.

This philosophical conception still echoes part of the history of our current and we can not ignore it. And if collectively Alternative libertarian denounces ideologies reducing the " other ", human or animal in thing, in quantity, in series of data to be managed, it seems inopportune today to impose this philosophy at all, the conditions at the same time Cultural, economic and political problems are not met for such a change. We will remain condemned for a long time to manage the contradictions between the reasonable welfare of the human population and the respect of the life of our cousins of other animal species.

Obviously, it is quite different from the political considerations which involve a redefinition of the agricultural productions needed by humankind to ensure a sufficiently high protein diet for all men, women and children, which will imply Necessarily a drastic reduction in meat consumption in Western countries. Obviously, the same is true of the indispensable evolution of the standards of breeding and slaughter of domestic animals, in order to eliminate all that is more or less related to the maltreatment of sentient beings by a species affirming an illegitimate superiority, And in particular to put an end to industrial systems of battery breeding, chain felling, etc.

To conclude, contrary to certain currents that claim to be radical, our aim is not and can not be to advocate solutions aimed at ridding the planet of all human technology. A virgin nature, free from all human action is simply a fantasy. Even in a region like the Amazon, flora and fauna have been profoundly altered by human activity, even before the arrival of Europeans on the American continent. The future we want is that of a nature where human activities can be developed but controlled by the need to control our impact on the rest of the living world and to safeguard biodiversity.

This shared future imposes a fundamental break in the way we imagine the development of humanity. In particular, the following points are addressed:

The spatial planning of each country, the constraints necessary for a genuine policy for the conservation and restoration of biodiversity and ecologically compatible urbanization ;
The necessary changes in the broader agricultural sector (culture, livestock, forestry, fisheries) ;
The necessary evolutions within the cities, including as much the question of the habitat as that of the articulation between habitat and organization of the production. This includes extractive industries, manufacturing, construction and public works, services ;
The question of the international organization of labor and economic relations between countries of the South and the North.
Differentiated spatial planning

The plundering of resources, the endless exploitation of fossil energies, the artificialisation of soils, lead humanity to an impasse. Without a major and rapid change in human activity, the wall could unfortunately be hit faster than imagined today. It's probably only a few decades--

The 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was presented to the United Nations to assess the extent and consequences of ecosystem changes. Its main conclusion is that mankind has changed ecosystems more rapidly in the last fifty years than since its history: destruction and pollution of natural environments, overexploitation of natural resources, introduction of species from one environment to another, and Global warming causes an irreversible loss of biodiversity.

Mexican and US experts in an article published in June 2015 in the journal Science Advances announce that the " 6 th extinction " is on: the rate of species extinction due to human activities continues to accelerate. Its impact rivals that of the five massive biological crises that have punctuated the history of living beings for 500 million years - the last, 65 million years ago, precipitating the fall of dinosaurs.

To achieve a new dynamic equilibrium with the rest of the living world, mankind must put an end to the process of artificialisation of all ecosystems.

This means that it will have to set up differentiated management between:

The main zones of human habitat, with activities, on the one hand industrial and on the other hand agricultural. In them human activity will seek to integrate itself into a dynamic equilibrium with the development of other forms of life, even if it is inevitable that human pressure completely transforms the equilibrium of living beings.
And protected natural areas preserved from human activities related to industrial technologies.
Protected areas, apart from the fact that they must not be reduced to the minimum, must make it possible to sanctuate the current primary forests, or at least what remains of them, but must also be established on all continents And on each of them, as far as possible, to cover all types of existing ecosystems in order to maintain true biodiversity and not only on land " useless " for industrialization.

It must be understood that these protected areas, in addition to portions of land, will also have to integrate coastal and maritime lake and river areas within which not only all pollution will be drastically combated but also any banned industrial activity, Character " tourist ".

For non-industrial activities, such as hunting and gathering activities, fishing or traditional culture in dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding ecosystems will have their place as today the agricultural activities and in particular the breeding in the National and regional parks.

Furthermore, protected areas can not be reduced to a set of isolated sanctuaries, if only in relation to the challenge of maintaining biodiversity. Maintaining a circulation of flora and fauna from one protected area to another will obviously be a major challenge. Territorial continuity will be difficult to obtain everywhere. However, acceptable compromises have to be devised everywhere to safeguard the potential of biodiversity on earth.

The management of these protected areas will form part of a dual system of power. On the one hand, the people living there will organize themselves to manage the resources they will use in their environment, as they have always done. On the other hand, international coordinations will set global objectives for the protection of protected areas by supporting local populations in the implementation of these objectives.

A new agricultural revolution

Concerning agricultural areas, it must be said that within them a new agricultural revolution must be implemented, based on agrarian reform. The collective ownership of land where the interested parties wish, or their redistribution to redevelop a peasant agriculture must be put in place in order to increase the number of farms and the installation of a large number of peasants and peasants. This is a sine qua non condition for ensuring diversified production and food self-sufficiency in small regions.

This will mean ending the agricultural specialization of entire regions and reducing agricultural export production when it is an obstacle to local food self-sufficiency.
The forms of farms have a direct impact on biodiversity and soil quality. Let us take the example of reparcelling, which caused the destruction of the bocage form, thus reducing the biodiversity of the hedges (and the continuities they offered), while facilitating the leaching and desertification of soils.

A fundamental change in cultivation practices must be put in place in order to ensure that there is no environmental pollution, food quality of production and the health of workers on the land. The objective is the development of an innovative and diversified farming industry that will be able to take on the important climate changes to come: innovative techniques of organic farming, the use of robust varieties, the association of crops, biological control, Polyculture-raising, no-till cultivation to combat soil erosion, permaculture, differentiated management are all ways to develop and for some to generalize.

The new agricultural model described in the preceding paragraph will necessarily result in the development of cereal and legume crops for human consumption and a decrease in meat production and biomass for energy use.

Peasant and ecological agriculture requires more work than agro-industry. A significant process of returning to the countryside will necessarily begin. But whenever mechanization is compatible with the requirements of new agriculture and with ecological constraints and will save human labor, it will be implemented.

Concerning fisheries, the first decision to take will be the prohibition of industrial fisheries, a measure essential to stop the overexploitation of the oceans. Fish will necessarily become a rare commodity, except obviously in coastal areas. In the same way, forestry will be subject to at least two imperatives: firstly, the choice of species adapted to the forests concerned, aimed at maintaining or developing local biodiversity, and on the other hand to sustainable management, which does not consume More every year than what the forests produce at the same time.

Urban planning, fundamentally transformed habitats

Modern urbanism has resulted in a bursting of functions: working, living, having fun (leisure). The displacement links these three functions. In urban sociology, it has been shown that the capacity to move increases as we have different cultural, social, relational and economic capital. Relegation to neighborhoods of habitat too often prevents self-organization and assigns individuals and groups to residence. Consequently, ecologically consistent urban planning must promote a strict restriction of travel by creating intensive and complex neighborhoods, villages and towns in which to live well and where displacement would no longer be an imperative but a possibility open to all.

Finally, within an egalitarian society, the organization of present-day cities, structured around the institutions of power and organized services for the propertied classes, will disappear. A new multipolar organization will be set up, combining within a limited area, ie a neighborhood, a set of housing islands and places of production, public education and health services, places Cultivation, collective gardens - allowing the development of an agriculture and a small urban livestock farming -, pleasure parks, places of practice of sports, spaces for exchange and / or distribution of productions ... improving Greatly reducing everyday life and drastically reducing energy costs associated with everyday transport.

We are witnessing a triple phenomenon, on the one hand a " desertification " of many territories, on the other hand an increase of cities and megacities, and finally of " rurbanized " zones , phenomenon linked either to the exclusion of the poorest or to the 'Aspiration to live in a' natural 'environment. A harmonious development of territories, linking social, economic and ecological, should see a revitalization of the villages of the towns and a consequent decrease in the economic and demographic weight of the cities.

However, for a long time, cities will remain major areas of housing and industrial activity. Obviously, it is not a question of making it a place of pollution or a waste of resources. These will simply be places where biodiversity can be assumed to be low. But the revolutions implemented, in transport, in the type of consumption and production, will massively evolve these territories in order to make them livable spaces for humans.

We believe that major changes will necessarily affect the habitat. This will concern building materials, designed from renewable resources and to be non-polluting during their production and the integration of techniques making housing non-energy consuming, or even energy producers using renewable, solar-powered local energies , Hydraulic, wind turbine.

But within a solidarity-based and energy-saving society, the structures of the dwellings themselves will change, (or the structure will ... change) " individual dwellings " will be integrated into housing islands that bring together many services and (Laundromat, do-it-yourself equipment, collective room with audio-visual equipment, computers, board games and sports equipment, meeting room for residents, bicycles, etc.). .). These various forms of mutualisation also allow for a genuine user-friendliness, richer exchanges, putting an end to the isolation within large cities.

The public places will be reorganized to promote social exchanges. In each neighborhood will be set up a network of meeting rooms, open to associations and political movements, promoting an intense associative and political life. Movements within and between neighborhoods will be restricted to bicycles and public transport, tram, metro, bus, whose networks will be developed, timetables adapted to the needs of the inhabitants and accessible free of charge.

Urban waste management will be reinvented: Recyclable products, virtually prohibited packaging, general composting, development of wastewater sanitation within adapted plant areas (phytoremediation). The development of small urban agriculture, revegetation of cities, and vegetation cover of buildings are important issues to improve air and soil quality and to combat the rise in temperature in cities.

The same will apply to the overall spatial planning of each region and the balance between the different regions on the planet. A dismantling of metropolises, the development of which is a drift due to the hierarchical and inegalitarian organization of class societies, will naturally be organized in favor of a more homogeneous distribution of the population and the establishment of workers closer to the Availability of materials and energy used in work.

These developments will also result from a transformation of the productive apparatus, in particular with regard to the international organization of labor and economic relations between countries of the South and North. On these fundamental questions from an ecological point of view, we refer firstly to the text adopted in 2006 at the VIII th Congress of Alternative Libertaire entitled " Facing the environmental challenge, three revolutions are necessary ", and secondly to text adopted in 2012 at the XI th congress entitled " Against free trade: productive autonomy ."

Attempting here to define the extractive, manufacturing, construction or services industries that will function within such a society is meaningless. The only thing that can be said is that this will result from decisions integrating partially contradictory imperatives, between supporting the biodiversity of these activities, meeting the needs of all men, women and children, defining these needs ... In any case, it will be a perpetual search for balance between what humans can sustainably take from the planet's resources and the satisfaction of human desires. In addition, toxic waste from productive activities will be strictly controlled by the municipalities where it will be located,

What we know is that entire sections of the capitalist economy will disappear, especially everything connected with the commodification of life, the control of dominated social classes, advertising, overpacking, The private appropriation of land, buildings and production tools, the stock exchange and the dominance of finance, the production reserved for the privileged social classes, the daily transport imposed on the dominated social classes ... This is an important part Of human activities which must disappear, rapidly allowing both a reduction of the ecological footprint, the end of social exclusion and a significant reduction in working time.

One way or another the question of human demography will weigh in these balances. We know that this is a problem today. For implicitly posing the question of demographic equilibrium can refer to racist assumptions which make it a burden on the peoples of the south. We would like to recall that the ecological crisis is the product of international capitalism.

What human population can the earth bear ? We have a certainty: it will be necessary to find a balance between the resources consumed, the capacity for regeneration of these resources and the decent life for humans. Humanity can not grow without end. But we know that the demographic stabilization of humanity requires a fundamental factor: a process of women's liberation, the education of girls, the right of all women to dispose of their bodies, the fight against all violence against women , Free access to contraception and abortion, and economic, social and political equality between women and men.

In conclusion, just as ecological struggle is inseparable from a struggle against capitalism, it is inseparable from a struggle for the liberation of women at the international level.

http://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?L-humanite-au-sein-du-monde-vivant
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