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(en) anarkis: Indonesia, Why does Anarchism Reject the State? BY MELFIN ZAENURI [machine translation]

Date Sat, 17 Jun 2017 14:27:15 +0300

Anarchists in Korea-China who are members of the Shinmin Anarchist Federation, read about the anarchist movement in China-Korea in the Anarchist Revolution in Korea. ---- What's on your mind if you hear the word 'anarchist' or 'anarchism'? A series of negative words can be mentioned: rough, violent, destructive, troubled, chaotic, and selfish. ---- If there are community organizations (mass organizations) that often do mischief and damage public facilities, for example, mass organizations are stigmatized anarchist organizations. ---- In today's society, 'anarchists' have gotten a bad stigma whose presence is not expected-even present in thought. Anarchism is very dangerous, therefore it should be shunned. Associating anarchism with violence is not entirely false and also not entirely true.

Anarchism as a praxis of thought and action has gone through a long history that is necessitating development. The 'negative' stigma of anarchism also can not be separated from the historical events that melumurinya.

Viewing anarchism as solely a matter of violence and therefore must be rejected and annihilated on earth is an attitude and acts of either big or silly.

Thought, whatever its form and kind, including anarchism, will never really perish even though the organization that sheltered it has disappeared. On the contrary, it can encourage (sort of stimulate) people to know more deeply. There is a kind of curiosity in the minds of people: why is ideology banned or not? Why is the organization banned? And other questions.

In Indonesia, for example, finds its form in the issue of Marxism and Communism. Communism as an ideology of thought and ideology would never, if not impossible, be buried. Forbidding it is silly and futile. So it is with anarchism: why is anarchism "considered" dangerous and should be shunned? To find the answer, we can not only arrive at anarchism according to today in the mass media now. It took a thorough search to find out why the anarchism, for today's context (and perhaps for the future), is needed in answering life's problems, especially socio-political issues.

What, then, is the fundamental definition of anarchism? And what are the points of thought that are advanced?

Etymologically, the word 'anarchist' comes from Greek, anarchy , which means 'opposite or contrary to authority (contrary to autority) , or without government (without rulers) '.[1]Anarchists also mean an archos , no government , no government. Thus, the fundamental stance of anarchism is a rejection of authority, which in this context is 'monopolized' by the state.

Why does anarchism reject the state? For anarchists the state as an institution that is coercive and the main source of power (power) and the authority is unjustified existence. This view of anarchism is at odds with the main 'task' of political philosophy which centers on the study of 'natural state' and the justification of the state: on what basis is the state established, why should we entrust our affairs to the state, and on what basis the state is allowed to control the actions and The behavior of its citizens?[2]

In essence, anarchism denies the existence of the state. The rejection of anarchism in this country is a logical consequence of the philosophical foundation that underpins anarchism as a thought. According to Mansour Fakih, the views and ideas of anarchism can not be separated from the view of the 'natural state' of man. That in essence, man is a creature that can naturally live in harmony and freedom without power intervention.[3]

In line with what Mansour Fakih said, long ago, Peter Kropotkin, an anarchist leader from Russia, said that people benefit from the nature of mutual help (cooperative).[4]

The natural state of humanity as harmony, good and cooperative becomes the justification of anarchists to say ' say no to state' . This is the opposite, for example, with the view of Thomas Hobbes who holds that the natural state of man is homo homini lupus , the wolf for the other wolf. Therefore, the state is needed to ensure that people do not slip into war among peers.[5]Even countries need to incarnate leviathan , a kind of sea monster, which forces and creates fear for an order among citizens.

Understanding the basic understanding and philosophical foundations of anarchism above indicates the absence of a misconception, rather than leading to chaos and violence. In essence, anarchism places the state as the main 'enemy'. Not because the state monopolizes power and authority, but is also destructive to society. For example, the territorial power it possesses, the jurisdictional power over the people includes the controlling power of resources within the controlled territory, and equally important the state power over the imagination or the idea of the people of a nation.[6]

Basically, the state is a political arena with power as its primary goal. If power has been achieved, then the next effort is to keep his power in order to stay sustainable. For the sake of perpetuating power and authority, the state uses all means-as in politics justifies all Machiavellian ways-by utilizing its assets, possessions and possessions, even with the production of falsehood and unrighteousness.

Rocky Gerung in one cuitannya on twitter who had viral some time ago said that the largest source of hoax is the country, because the country has everything to me (re) production of hoax and make it as commonplace in the community. The lie that is reproduced continuously, in the future, will become a truth that is accepted by society. There are capital, authority, media, and legitimacy of science institutions. With everything that is owned, the state standardizes and normalizes the actual society to secure its power and authority.

For example, during the New Order era through its anti-communism campaign. Instruments such as the military, state institutions, media and scientific institutions and legislation were used by the New Order regime for the eradication of communism. In the field of culture did not escape the control of the regime of the ruler; No New Order propaganda film Pengkhianatan G30S / PKI who routinely aired on state television and several literary works such as short stories and novels.[7]

The state, with its authority as legitimacy, defines 'forbidden' as 'not us,' 'normal' and 'abnormal', 'good citizens' and 'betrayers' for the need for stability while perpetuating power. So it appears, for example, the word nomalization, ideological clarification, anti-development, anti-progress and so on.[8]

If anarchism rejects the state as a manipulative authority, then does anarchism always reject authority? What about, for example, the expertise and profession of someone who is inherently authoritative? To answer this question, the anarchists to distinguish between the state (state) -bersifat political ( the political ) - and society (society ) -bersifat Social (the social) . The distinction of both leads to discussion of authority in expertise or profession.

Anarchism means a politically manifested state of power, authority, hierarchy, and domination. Whereas society, with existing social principles, can be seen in spontaneous interpersonal associations in order to realize common needs and interests.[9]With power and authority possessed, often, the state still wants to show its power beyond the limit; That the rightful and legitimate make a definition of everything is state. No wonder then the state creates standards, national uniformity, even regulate the most private affairs of individuals such as the subject of sex and belief. Therefore,

Society builds its life collectively. Because who knows the affairs, problems and needs of society is the community itself, not the state. Often, for example, the state taxes from individuals in society, but the state 'gives' the unneeded of society. The profit is still 'given' (read: returned to the community), often used to repress society or corrupted for the interests of the state apparatus.

Let the community take care of its own affairs and needs, so what happens is decentralization; Sovereignty of societies. In dealing with its own affairs and needs, the community has social control within it, one of them, including the authority of expertise or profession. In this context, anarchists agree with the need for the authority or authority of experts in various fields of society, for example: some people know the best way to produce food, it is appropriate that others succumb to their policies in the making of food.[10]

Authority can also be interpreted as a co-operative division of roles in a society that enables the current order; The achievement of social justice. The division of this role presupposes equality, not hierarchy. There is no superior individual over other individuals. All individuals contribute to society. Under such circumstances, instead of associating with violence, troublemakers, chaos and other negative tendencies, anarchism inflames anti-tyranny, anti-state arbitrariness, anti-authoritarian hiding behind the cloak of the state, for the realization of a just social order with Based on the principle of equality and freedom.


[1]cf. Colin Ward, 2004, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 1.

[2]cf. Robert Audi[Ed.], 1999, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Second Edition), United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, p. 718.

[3]cf. Mansour Fakih, Anarchism: Undisguised Understanding, in http://anarkis.org/anarkisme-paham-tak-not-padam-2/ , accessed on February 22, 2017.

[4]cf. Jonathan Wolff, 2013, Introduction to Political Philosophy , M. Nur Prabowo Setyabudi], Bandung: Nusa Media, p. 47.

[5]cf. Ibid., P. 12.

[6]cf. Mansour Fakih, Op., Cit.

[7]For more details on how the New Order regime campaigns against anti-communism through culture, especially film and literature, see Wijaya Herlambang, 2015, Cultural Violence Post 1965: How the New Order Legitimizes Anti-Communism through Literature and Film , Tangerang Selatan: Marjin Left.

[8]George Orwell in his famous 1984 novel describes and simultaneously describes how the state oversees the everyday lives of every citizen. Even established divisions or ministries to deal with the conduct of such supervision. Cf. George Orwell, 2014, 1984 ,[translator. Landung Simatupang], Yogyakarta: Landscape.

[9]cf. Colin Ward, Op. Cit., P. 26

[10]cf. Jonathan Wolff, Op. Cit., P. 50

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