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(en) Czech, afed: Jewish anarchists in New York City -- The new pocket brochure published by AF. [machine translation]

Date Sat, 19 Mar 2016 11:49:44 +0200




The latest pocket booklet form the first chapter of the book Kenyon Zimmer Immigrants against the state. Yiddish and Italian anarchism in America , published in 2015. The text of the booklet describes the origin and development of the anarchist movement in the environment of Jewish immigration on New York's Lower East Side at the time of its greatest expansion - from 80s of the 19th century to the beginning of the First World War. ---- The author detailed discusses all aspects of the development of Yiddish anarchist movement: from the history of important Jewish anarchist sheet dude Arbeter Stim through share anarchists in the labor movement (especially in the domestic dressmaking workshops) and relationships with other anarchist formations in New York, to the activities of prominent personalities movement like Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, and remarkable progress in the status of women among the Yiddish anarchists.

The booklet will be available at the usual distribution points and events supported by the Anarchist Federation.

There is at least a small sample, explaining what the material conditions of the Yiddish anarchist movement in New York shaped:

Regardless of class status or level of education in the Old World were newcomers "Greenhorns" overwhelmingly employed as manual workers or as laborers, most with partial qualifications. Many factors led to the fact that Jewish immigrants concentrated in dressmaking trade: trade union federation of skilled workers in the framework of the American Federation of Labor (American Federation of Labor, AFL) prevented the East European Jews to work in most professions; Jewish emigration coincided with the dramatic expansion of US production of ready-made clothing and this industry was dominated by a previous generation of German and Austrian Jewish businessmen who preferred hiring Jewish employees. These factors also led to the emergence of a modest local workshops, which most large apparel companies commissioned bespoke tailoring pre-cut material and finishing the production of clothing by independent contractors who were paid according to pre-determined price of the final product. These contractors can therefore compete with each other offering to reduce prices, and they could only earn minimizing labor costs drastically thanks to the creation of exploitative jobs. Hundreds of these "external work" were scattered throughout Manhattan and Brooklyn and conditions in them were permanently miserable and unhealthy. Normal patnáctihodinový was sixteen and working day and during the peak season work could continue throughout the night.

In these workshops, working men, women as well as children. But despite that there were almost equal numbers of men and women labor force were strictly divided by gender. Unlike Europe, where Jewish women were often feeding their families were Jewish wives in New York forced to adopt the American concept of honesty and staying home. In 1905, only one percent had married Jewish women work outside the home. Most workers in the tailors were unmarried young girls, many of whom have worked so since the age of sixteen. Sewing machinist was generally considered "women's work", while men have a monopoly on better paid positions such as editors. In other activities, such as buttonhole sewing or ironing, she was employed roughly equal numbers of men and women, but women were generally much worse paid.

In addition to these local workshops Jewish immigrants rarely escaped the experiences of the rental market. Tenements on the Lower East Side were notorious as a cramped, crowded, dark, poorly ventilated and generally unhealthy. When the mother anarchist Marie Ganz first entered into a tiny family-room apartments with horror exclaimed: "So this is why we are here dragged halfway across the world?" The poet David Edelstadt that due to poor working conditions and unhealthy living tuberculosis, said that these apartment houses belong to the "history of the horrible crimes committed by man against man."

Kenyon Zimmer, Jewish anarchists in New York City , translated Cestmír Pelikan, published by the Anarchist Federation, 56 pages, A6 size, price CZK 30

03/09/2016 NAKLADATELSTVÍ OF

9.3.2016Nakladatelství AF

http://www.afed.cz/text/6386/zidovsti-anarchiste-v-new-york-city
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