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(en) A.P.O. - OS: Pietro Gori, Messina, Aug. 1, 1865 - Portoferraio, January 8, 1911 [machine translation]

Date Sat, 12 Jan 2019 10:09:15 +0200

Italian lawyer and charismatic orator, anarchist propagandist, organizer, publisher, journalist, writer, poet and lyricist of the 19th century. ---- EARLY YEARS ---- Born in Messina, Sicily, Francesco Gori (Francesco Gori, a former Risorgimento fighter) and Julia Lusoni, who after a few years in 1878 settled in Livorno ). Being a particularly anxious spirit and characterized by high intelligence and eloquence, he received classical education, participated in his teenage age in a monarchy organization but from which he dismissed him because of "unpalatable behavior" and then began writing in the central newspaper of Livorno " Reform "(" La Riforma "). In 1886, at the age of 20, he enrolled in the 'University of Pisa' ('L' Università di Pisa ').


At the law school of the University of Pisa he came into contact with his anarchist fellow students, joined Anarchism and the following year (1887) he was arrested for the first time for his post for anarchist witnesses of May Day in Chicago and against the presence of American ships in his harbor Livorno. Without being hurt, Gary continued with libertarian publications and

(1888), as a secretary of the "Student Association", he organized with his fellow students a philosophical memorial to Giovanni Bruno, a full-fledged martyr of the free spirit.

In 1889 he received a degree in law with his bachelor's thesis "La miseria e il delitto" and went on to practice in law, while in November of the same year he published the pseudonym "Rigo" ("Rigo", anagramism his first name) his first essay entitled "Revolutionary Thoughts" ("Pensieri ribelli"). For the latter he was arrested once more with the class of excitement of political passions, but he was acquitted in the trial that followed, after the excellent defense given to him by his best teachers. His third arrest took place on May 13, 1890, with 27 others students on the grounds that they had organized the May Day demonstrations in Livorno with a view to provoking a rebellion and the subsequent trial sentenced to one year's imprisonment.


Immediately after his release, Gori left for Milan, where he found work as a lawyer at Filippo Turati's socialist office (1857-1932), and on 4-6 January 1891 he participated in the conference of the Swiss city of Capolago, in which approximately 80 representatives of Italian groups were founded by the short-lived "Socialist Anarchist Revolutionary Party" (PSAR) under the influence of Errico Malatesta.

Throughout the year, he and Turati participated in the legal defense of political prisoners, and he had already published his competing poetry collections "La Conquista dell' avvenire" (1890) and "Prisons and Fights" Prigioni e battaglie: versi, 1891), which had become outraged, selling 9,000 copies each.

In 1891 he also participated with Turati at the Congress of the Italian Partido Operaio Italiano (POI), 1882-1892 in Milan, translated the Communist Manifesto of Marx and Engels and began to publish the socialist - anarchist magazine called "L 'Amico del Popolo", 1891-1892, of which almost all 27 issues were confiscated shortly after their release by the police and costing their publisher with new arrests, trials and small-law suits, while as early as 22 November 1891 a secret instruction by Interior Minister Luigi Pell oux asked the local authorities to closely monitor it. As a result of this directive, Gory was arrested several times "for prudential reasons", notably during demonstrations and labor gatherings,

On April 4, 1892, he participated in Milan at the conference "Socialismo legalitario e socialismo anarchico" for a reformist or anarchist Socialism, where he advocated the second trend, which he defended and followed on August 14 in Genoa "National Congress of Labor and Socialist Organizations ", Opposed to the proposal to set up the reformist" Socialist Party of Italian Workers "(PSLI, 1893-1895), a precursor of the" Partito Socialista Italiano "(PSI). Known for his anti-reformist positions, he became unwanted in the premises of parliamentary socialists, resulting, like Amilcare Cipriani, 1844-1918, to be expelled in August 1893 by the Zurich Socialist Congress. In response, he also published the short-lived magazine "Social Welfare" (Lotta Sociale), which had a fate similar to "Friends of the People", with successive seizures of his writings.

Earlier in the same year, in May 1893, he had defended as an attorney, despite the ideological differences with him, the incivil-based anarchist Paolo Schicchi (1865 - 1950, opposing Malatesta's views on an organized and socialist anarchist movement). The latter had dropped a small (no dynamite) bomb at the Spanish consulate in Genoa as a vengeance for torture by the Barcelona police and, despite Gori's efforts, he was finally sentenced to 11 years of forced labor.


In the early months of 1894, Gory defended some of his comrades, for example. from March 22 to June 8, Luigi Galleani, 1861-1931, in Genoa, and Chieti's typographer and editor of the newspaper "Il Pensiero" by Camillo Di Sciullo, 1853-1935, on April 6, who was acquitted.

In July 1894, however, the Italian government passed three anti-anarchist laws, with which political rights and freedom of expression were very limited, and very soon, in the context of their implementation, the conservative newspapers began to target the annoying lawyer and finally ended up blaming him openly as the moral instigator of the murder in Lyon on 24 June 1894 by Francois Sadi Carnot, 1837-1894, by Sante Geronimo Caserio, 21-year-old Italian anarchist, 1873-1884.

Chased by the Italian police as a "collaborator" of Caserio, with only "incriminating" evidence that he had composed a song about the latter, his trial and his execution ("Ballata per Sante Caserio", "Ballad for Santé Caserio "), Gori was forced to flee to Lugano, Switzerland, while many of his likeminders had already been arrested in Milan.

His persecution by the Italian authorities, however, did not stop even in the Italian-speaking Lugano, where at some point even attempted to kill him by two unknowns who shot him unsuccessfully with revolvers. Eventually, strongly pressed by the Italian authorities, the Lugano police arrested him in January 1895 with 17 other political exiles like him and expelled them after two weeks in Germany. In his adventure, Gori made her singing, one of the most famous anarchist songs, the famous "Addio a Lugano", composed in prison:


From Germany, Gori passed to Belgium and ended up in London, where he met many exile figures of the international anarchist movement, such as Louise Michel, 1830-1905, Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin, 1842-1921, (Sebastien Faure, 1858 - 1942), et al. and then barking from the port of Hull as a sailor on the merchant ship "Neuland", crossed the other side of the Atlantic, in New York, from where he began a long tour across the US. and Canada, giving more than 400 lectures in just one year, while making publications in Patterson, New Jersey, "La Questione Sociale".

He returned to London on July 18, 1896, to participate in the 4th International Conference on Workers' Unions (July 27 - August 1, 1896) as one of the seven representatives of the American but after repeated recriminations he was expelled from work, as did all other anarchist congressmen, as they were considered "annoying" by the dominant Marxists. He followed a long hospital stay in the "National Hospital" after his complete physical collapse due to overexploitation, although even hospitalized he did not fail to send his writings to the anarchist magazine "The Torch" (London), which was published in London young Italian women sisters Roséti (Olivia and Helen Rossetti).

After pressure from some socialist MPs, the Italian government finally ceased all his persecution and allowed him to return to Italy in the autumn of 1896, although initially he remained confined to the island of Isola d 'Elba. When in December 1896 he finally found himself with freedom of movement in the main Italy, he returned to his old political action centered around Milan, organizing new groups in the place of those who had dissolved the laws of 1894 and publishing his texts in thriving anarchist newspapers of the era, such as the Ancona "L 'Agitazione" published by the team around Errico Malatesta, 1853-1932, Emidio Nemo Recchioni, 1864-1934, and Cesare Agostinelli, 1854-1932 ). By mid-1898, Gory had struggled to reconnect the anarchists with the workers and also defended a number of political trials of several striking laborers and peasants, as well as several of his like-minded, the "L 'Agitazione" publishers or the anarchist brokers accused of the 1894 uprising in Carrara.


The sudden rise in cereal and bread prices in the spring of 1898 became the occasion for a series of hectic protests organized by the Left, culminating in the March 7, 1898 demonstration in Milan, whereby commander General Fiorenzo Bava Beccaris, , the army opened fire against the crowd, killing about 300 protesters. There was a violent police crackdown on revolutionary organizations and newspapers, and finally Gori left Italy when he predicted early that he would be imprisoned (due to his fiery articles in the newspaper "Agitazione" and indeed sentenced in absentia to 12 years in shells). Through Marseille he ended up in Argentina for a few years, where he founded in Buenos Aires the scientific legal journal "Criminalogia Moderna"

Taking advantage of a political amnesty, he returned to Italy in 1902 and after a few months he founded in Rome, together with the 25-year-old then Luigi Fabbri, 1877-1935, the theoretical anarchist magazine "Il Rensiero" was released from 1903 until 1911.

In 1905, he participated in the Bologna Trade Union Congress, which examined the union's relationship with political organizations, in 1906 he published Socialismo legalitario e socialismo anarchico and in 1907 he pioneered the demonstrations on the island of Elba (where he was in 1906 for reasons health) as a result of industrial accidents.

Until his death, he remained politically active, acting organisationally, writing (leaving behind a huge work with theatrical works - political one-sided, theoretical essays and poetry), but also legally defending his various persecuted homosexuals. Part of his lyrical work are some famous anarchist songs such as "Stornelli d 'esilio", "Ballata per Sante Caserio" and "Addio a Lugano" (" Goodbye to Lugano ").

The so-called "Anarchist poet" died early on from an organic collapse due to his chronic over-exhaustion, at the age of 45, in Portoferraio shortly before dawn on 8 January 1911, in the hands of his sister Bice (Pietro Castiglioli). His body was transported by rail for burial in his mother's home, Rosignano Marittimo, and at every stop were waiting for him large crowds of homosexuals who had never been gathered for similar occasions to tell him the last "Hail".


For a whole decade after his death, his memory was celebrated by numerous gatherings in almost all of Tuscany, in many towns and villages of which monuments, busts and commemorative plaques had been dedicated to him, and his name had been given in several squares and their roads. These symbols of popular worship for the "idealist knight" (as the people called him) later became the target of the rising fascists of Benito Mussolini, although later the fascist regime even attempted to appropriate it, presenting it as an ideological "precursor" . Today, in Rosenheim Maritimo there is a name of the municipal museum ("Museo Pietro Gori"), where his personal objects, photographs, letters and his library are displayed.

Vlasis G. Rassias, 2009


«Misery and crime», 1889
«Rebel thoughts», 1889, u? ?? ???????u? «Rigo»
«The conquest of the future», 1890
«Prisons and battles: verses», 1891
«Hymn of the first ?aggio», 1892
«Objections to Anarchy. Polemics with a monarchist - collectivist», 1893
«Our trial: the defense of Pietro Gori», 1894
«May Day. Dramatic sketch in one deed», 1896
«Ciencia y religion», 1896
«Proximus tuus. Social sketch in one deed ", 1898
" La Anarquia ante los tribunals ", 1898
" Without a homeland. Social sketch in one deed», 1899
«Las bases morales y sociologicas of Anarquismo», 1900
«Our Utopia», 1901
"Ideal. Poetic sketch - single act with prologue», 1902
«The songbook of the rebels», 1903
«Humanism and militarism», 1904
«War on war!», 1904
«Emilio Zola», 1904
«New songs», 1904
«Your order and our disorder», 1905
«Anarchists are criminals?», 1905
«Waiting for the sun!», 1905
«May Day legend», 1905
«Honest people. Scenes from bourgeois life in three acts», 1905
«Ideals and battles. Selected Poems», 1905
«In Defense of Life», 1905
«Are Anarchists Socialists?», 1906
«Songs of Exile», 1906
«Sante Caserio: Historical Notes», 1906
«Legalistic Socialism and Anarchist Socialism», 1906
«The woman and the family», 1906
«A page of history of the Anarchist Socialist Party», 1908
«Il canto dei lavoratori da mare», 1908
«In morte di Messina: ritmi e rime», 1909
«Calendimaggio: drammatiche scene. In 1910
«By the life and death of Francisco Ferrer», 1910
«Francisco Ferrer: in memory», 1910
«Prisione: versi», 1911
«Ceneri e faville: prosa», 1911
«Sociological Criminal», 1911
«Social Bozzetti», 1911
«Anarchic Sociology», 1912
«Pagoda di vagabondaggio», 1912
«Political Conferences I» , 1912
Political Conferences II, 1912 (post-mortem)
"Nuovo canzoniere rivoluzionario internazionale", 1914 (after death)
"Liberta e uguaglianza", 1945 (after death)
"La Comune", 1946

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