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(en) Turkey, DAF, Meydan #41- Anarchism in Azerbaijan (tr) [machine translation]
Fri, 24 Nov 2017 09:07:45 +0200
The rise of tension between the people and the ruling power in Russia in the early 20th
century led the tsarist government to take a more oppressive position. While the power of
the police, the military and the tsarist bureaucracy increased, the privileges and
political rights previously granted to local governments were being restored. ---- From
1905 to 1907, anarchism turned into a theoretical-practical-political movement in the
Russian reality. The spread of anarchist ideas in the Caucasus began in 1905 in Kutaisi,
Grozny, Elisavetpol, Tbilisi. But it emerged in 1904 and the center of the most developed
anarchist movement was Baku. ---- Baku in OHAL ---- In January 1902, a " state of
emergency " was declared in Baku . The police have been able to overcome the judicial
system and deal with labor movements and political agitation. In February 1905, martial
law was declared in Baku and the temporary general governor was appointed. That summer
Baku was declared " under siege " (na osadnom polozhenii). Until the beginning of the
First World War, the tsar was publishing a decree announcing that the tsar was continuing
every six months in Baku, and with the beginning of the war it was turned back in Baku.
The emergence of anarchist thinking in Baku and its transformation into a movement took
place in the most aggressive period of the state. In 1906-1907, the number of anarchist
organizations in Baku was between 13 and 40 according to certain information, and this
period is known as the most militant era of anarchist tradition in Baku. In the ranks of
anarchism, Baku had only 2800 workers-militants in the " Balahan " and " Black City "
districts of Baku for 1906 . The most influential organizations, anarcho-communist groups
that emerged in 1905 were " Anarchy " from the city center and " Borba " (Struggle) from
Bibi-Eybet . In the same period, " Bunt " (rebellion) was established in Balahani and "
International " was established in the Black City . Interestingly, "
Anarchy"Social-Democrats and anti-parliamentarians from a factory in Baku also participated.
On July 1, 1906 , a group named " Krasnaya Sotnia " (Red Hundred) was formed, named "
Anarchy " . " Krasnaya Sotnia " stated that there was bureaucracy in " Anarchy " and they
thought that they would implement a more effective "struggle" method.
" Anarchist-individualists ", " Black Crow ", " Anarchists-Bombers ", " Red Stars ", "
Khlebovoltsi " (Bread and Libertarians), " Terror ", " Land and Freedom ", Azeri anarchist
organization " Azad " and other smaller anarchist organizations emerged. Most of the
organizations were people from Russians, Armenians, ancient Gynchakists, Dashnaks, Jews,
Azeri, Georgians and other Caucasian peoples.
Conflict of Anarchists with Dashnaksutyun
The factory patron Mantashev - I. After the murder of Doluhanov by anarchists, the
leading Ginchakist S. Kalashyants who wrote in the brochure " Struggle and Anarchy" at the
beginning of 1906 with the leading names of "Anarchy" and also at the beginning of 1906
were slaughtered on 5 September 1906 by the Yashnaks. After that, the organization
continued its activities with names such as F. Yatsenko, H. Zaharyants and A.
Ter-Sarkisov. In the same year, V. Zeynts and A. Stern, one of the most famous names of "
Krasnaya Sotnia ", were murdered by the state while they were running away from prison.
Dashnaks killed S.Kalasyants in order to avenge their party members. The anarchists then
declared war on the " Dashnaksutyun " party, which resulted in the deaths of 17 stone and
11 anarchist workers between 1906 and 1907. Originally, the war was carried out directly
with the Dashnaks, but in 1907 the Armenian industrialists were fighting with the
anarchists and the " Green Face " they created to protect themselves . The same Armenian
industrialists said that the war had been carried out as both the " Green Face " and the
liquidation of the Tashnak gangs.
Azad , founded only in Azerbaijan in 1906, was known as the greatest among the small
anarchist organizations in Baku. The organization, which gained fame with the active work
of the Aga-Kerim and Aga-Sanguli brothers, fought against the gochu, which was mostly the
Azerbaijani city mafia in Baku and Teymur Ashureyov's head. Both brothers were arrested in
1907. One direction of anarchist activities in Baku was to disseminate the ideas of
anarchist ideas fathers through propaganda and agitation, to publish brochures and papers.
A publishing house was set up for this. Protests, leaflets and brochures largest anarchist
organizations " Borba " ( "Valerian", V. Gorbunov, D. Kulikov, K. Lubomudrov, G. Kost and
R. Pisçik), " anarchy " and " Red Hundreds"(V. Seitz, M. Zayachenkov and P. Studnev).
Sevastopol Meeting Event
From time to time, general meetings were organized by anarchists to unite different
groups into one organization and prepare a common tactical and action plan. Often these
meetings were distributed as a rule either because of their own mistakes or as a
consequence of police raids. One of the sounding incidents was the September 11, 1906,
Baku " Sevastopol"At the restaurant; where anarchists gathered from different fronts. The
restaurant was taken to the blockade by police and rifle cleric troops. 38 people were
taken into custody after major conflicts and the police seized a large amount of weapons
in one of the neighboring houses. Numerous anarchists have escaped, some have been
detained outside the city. In this case, a total of 88 people were arrested. Some of the
escaped went to Batumi, where they joined the local anarchists, and organized the "
International ", the trade union of Batum anarcho-communists, along with the famous
anarchist David Rostomasvili ("Kara Datico") . " International , " with the slogan " What
God, What a Master ", " Comrade Revolutionaries"And this statement became the program of
the Transcaucasian anarcho-communists, and it was widely discussed in Baku.
The declaration was starting with a warning about the upcoming parliament in Russia and
the desperate future parliamentarians who spoke in vain, who would enter the charitable
sphere in order to benefit the dark and needy people. But the anarchists' place is in the
people's crowd preparing the revolution from below. In the declaration, " stateless
communism as a goal, social revolution as a means! "- he was trying.
" But from this point of view, you can understand the idea of a great freedom and put an
end to today's economic and political slavery ... but if the liberals and others who hold
power hold us with sophisticated and subtle ways of slavery, we regard it as a historical
necessity and by expanding the anarchist movement , we declare that the revolution has
taken an unfinished, immortal, chronic form ... " The papers and leaflets of
" Anarchy "and" Krasnaya Sotnia "were all starting with M. Gorkin's words" Wisdom of life
is in the boldness of the crazy "or Bakunin's" Destructive soul-creating spirit " and
where the anarchists were talking about the fights for the people's liberation and happiness.
The tactics of " Krasnaya Sotnia " were agitation and talk that would eventually lead to
an armed revolt. The " Anarchy " report dedicated to the memorial of the murdered A. Stern
and V. Seitz was about the heroism of falling comrades. The comrades had their willes to
think " that the great work initiated would continue to spread the brilliant ideals of
revolutionary anarchism among the oppressed people, " and that " the saviors of the
people, the form of struggle and anarchism would be the international revolutionary
The actions of anarchists, of course, were not limited to publications and theoretical
debates. The sensational robbery of the postal ship of the communities " Caucasus and
Mercury " - " Tsesarevic " was, as is known, attributed to only one group of
socialist-revolutionaries. However, according to some later documents, " Krasnaya
Sotniadan"Anarcho-communists I. MDinaradze, N. Beburasvili, S. Topuria, G. Gobirakhashvili
also joined the peasantry. The money was mostly shared for the needs of the organizations
and for the help of the workers. One of these actions took place in 1906 when the
government allocated 16 million rubles to help those who survive after the massacres.
Manganese industrial corporations were assigned to distribute the money, refusing to give
money. In this way, the workers of the Manganese industry began a grave of two months.
During the strike , the " Anarchy ""He played a very active role. Noting that, they were
punished by assassinating the British community director of the factory (as well as the
chief consul) in Urguhart and also the director of the Mantashev factory, I. Doluhanov.
This forced the shareholders to give the workers' rights.
The largest number of direct actions have been organized by the " Red Face ". From 1906 to
1908 they were assisted by the police chief Jgenti, the regional security officers of
Zavgorodni and Kudryašov, police agents Doljnikov and Levin, police officer Prokopovic,
prison guard Prokopenko, police director Rihter, police officer Pestov, Nobel company
manager Eklund , The engineer of Nobelplat's plant Tuasson, detective B.Rachkovski and
others were killed. The famous anarchists who made these actions were Abram Stern,
Brotherhood Brothers, Poliakov, Shlamak, Ter-Galustov, Staroverov and others.
In 1906 Urbanovic and Slavsky, known for their brutal attitudes towards the rulers and
workers of the Bibi-Eybet Industrial Zone, were also the provocateurs Tavmisiants "
Anarchy " and " Borba"(Struggle) was killed by anarcho-communists.
Among the most important things of the anarchist movement were " economic direct actions
". There are many cases where anarchists bring strings with industrialists, especially
bombing oil engineers to comply with workers' demands, burning oil and oil tankers. During
1906-1908, the police repeatedly found weapons warehouses belonging to anarchists,
laboratories and workshops for the production of explosives. With economic direct actions,
they gain " Anarchy ", " Anarchist-bombers ", " Anarchist-individualists ".
In recent years, arrests, raids, wars between organizations have weakened anarchists very
much. According to anarchists, in Baku "only Marxist fanatics tried to undermine the
anarchist movement , "but only Marxists did not. The entire government and liberal press
were filled with articles and commentary against anarchists. Nor did the police who
organized the pressures and arrested the anarchist groups. Anarchists who were sentenced
to imprisonment and exile until 1908 generally did not go out. In connection with the
reactions that took place in Baku in 1908-1909, the detentions gained a massive character.
Only in March 1908 50 members of the " Red Face " were arrested and all were sentenced to
exile in Siberia. The arrest of members of " Krasnaya Sotnia " continued in 1909. At the
home of D. Veselov and E. Rudenko, bombs, explosives, parts of the printing press and
anarchist literature were found.
After the massive raids of 1908-1909, the anarchists could not recover until the end of
Gynchakist: Social Democrat Hinchak Party members
Goers: Baku's braves, mafia of the period.
Dashnaksutyun: In Armenian it means Federation. It is an abbreviation of the Armenian
Revolutionary Federation organization.
This article has been published in the 41st issue of Meydan Newspaper .
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