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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL d'Avril #227 - Lodging: with roof (fr) [machine translation]

Date Tue, 07 May 2013 14:34:28 +0300


Against the backdrop of social crisis, falling incomes, instability, massive unemployment and layoffs by the thousands, today, more than one in ten people is a victim of the housing crisis. ---- Victims of the housing crisis is estimated at eight million: 33,000 are homeless, 3.5 million live in slums, others may overnight to be thrown to the street-art [ 1 ]. More than 1.7 million people waiting for social housing that does not come [ 2 ]. ---- Housing has become the first item of expenditure of households (22% of revenue on average, 50% for some), the price of existing homes has increased 2.5 times between 1996 and 2011 and rents rose faster than income. Soaring prices now impacts the "middle classes", indebted tenants or owners. ---- The quality of the habitat is degraded and a third of residents in France live in a habitat with a major flaw: pierced roof, defective plumbing or electricity, humidity, etc.. There is an increasing number of homeless camps in major cities and reappear hundreds of slums.

A crisis organized long

Real estate speculation was triggered in 1975 with the withdrawal of the State which has ceased to plan the construction of housing on the basis of need, thus abandoning its mission of general interest to rely on circumstances.

The all-out deregulation (lifting the approval office 1985 release of rents and leaves for sale in 1986, raising the credit crunch in 1987) led to a rush of investors on strong gains. Instead of dwellings, built offices, with the blessing of local authorities expect the impact of the business tax. In 1985, the collection of passbooks, which finances social housing decline inexorably in favor of mutual funds and other financial products. In the former habitat, the end of the Law 48 death knell of social housing of fact and speculation will feed the exclusion of the poorest. Thus demolishes old buildings to build tall buildings or ... offices.

The construction of social housing is at half mast. We built 558,000 in 1972, 257,000 in 1993 and 315,000 in 2012. The shortage is exacerbated by the destruction of public housing complexes and the sale of public housing in the name of social diversity. But the account is not there: it rebuilt unless it destroyed and you have to sell three units to rebuild one.

Of vacant housing

Who says speculation said vacancy. Indeed, an empty building a higher price - and faster - a building occupied. The vacancy of the total housing stock has increased fourfold between 1954 and 1990. In 1994, 72% of vacant housing belonging to public authorities, institutions, real estate companies or large private owners [ 3 ]. Things have not changed much since.

As for housing, the economy making the law, the Court of Auditors pointed out in 2009 that 75% of social housing were built where there was no demonstrated need, only 25% were in tense areas. But much lower wages do not have access to social housing, income limits and rents have been increased to promote a social mix, donors prefer a creditworthy customers.

The misery of emergency

So these are thousands of people, including children, who have no alternative but to go to the Samu Social, without much hope. The survey conducted by Médecins du Monde brings up this winter that 65% of requests they sent to 115 have not resulted in a favorable response. The lack of (emergency shelters, dilapidated hotels, old abandoned buildings open state emergency during the winter, etc.). Childcare, cobbled is crying. Applications explode. Precarious accommodation and waivers family hotel in another, regardless of the place of education of children or working parents, to discourage homeless people who end up not appeal aims to at 115. The universal right to housing is violated and foreigners and foreign, with or without papers or asylum and asylum seekers, are discriminated against. Slums, eradicated in the 70s reappear. Once Italians and Poles and Portuguese and North Africans, their inhabitants and inhabitants are now more often Roma, Bulgarians or Romanians. But the problem is still the same. " I've had enough of the ethnicization of this issue , "protested Jean-Baptiste Eyraud Right to Housing" a slum is a slum. Violent policy Valls is useless. We must relocate! "

A national priority?

Holland has promised the construction of 500,000 housing units per year, including 150,000 social and eradication 600,000 unfit dwellings. Cécile Duflot, minister of territorial equality and housing, who believes "the number of people in fragile housing in the short or medium term 10 million" is at the origin of the first law, which does not break not with tax incentives of its predecessors, and provides a number of measures, including the mobilization of public land that should allow the construction of 100,000 housing units by 2016, half of the Île-de-France. But land and abandoned state buildings (hospitals, barracks, etc..) That the rest of their owners reluctant to make available will not be sufficient to absorb the deficiency million homes.

Follows a series of measures that can be asked if they have an impact of 40 years of rampant land speculation shortening procedures, flexible financing, facilitating the conversion of offices into housing, reduction of technical building standards, densification habitat, increased from 20 to 25% rate of social housing by town over 3500 inhabitants, by 2025 ... and five-fold increase penalties for non-compliance with the law on solidarity and urban renewal.

The housing ministry is preparing a second law with a lot of job boards and seems to proceed in social housing to a "reordering of rents" (meaning an increase in the relocation) and invent a "scientific" method allocation of housing to promote social diversity (exclude hear more poor). The looming danger of losing the right to housing (Dalo) which, if not adequately implemented, constitutes a legal precedent. Despite promises of requisition, the reluctance of the government is hiding behind legal considerations and nothing moves.

A fight that lasts

It is clear the slums still have a bright future ahead of them. Mobilization of those who (still) a roof against the high rents, faces the fear of losing and does not grow. On April 2, the evictions will resume throwing thousands of people out on the street. The only measure that can respond to the emergency requisition of empty housing and processing thousands of km2 of unoccupied housing offices. This is essential and what is just. This is what, in spite of fierce repression, emblematic associations (eg Dal) or younger (Toulouse, Montpellier, etc..) To respond to the emergency and build a power struggle against the speculators and the government. The housing must leave the market system to be a public good, social, an inalienable right for all. This is the meaning that we are in this fight for over twenty years.

Chloe (AL Seine-Saint-Denis)

Consequences of the crisis

People with financial difficulties in housing cutting back on food first, then transportation, recreation, furniture and health.

They meet less often members of their immediate family, go less often festive meetings (birthdays, etc..) And are not invested in the social fabric. Young people live longer with their parents. In 1982, 71% of 25-29 year-olds living in couples against 48% in 2011.

Source: CREDOC, 12/2011

Meeting on May 21 in Paris

Meeting at the Bataclan in Paris on May 21 to 19h housing organized by the Platform of social movements against expensive housing. For lower rents, stopping evictions without rehousing, the construction of social housing, the requisitioning of empty homes ...

[ 1 ] Abbé Pierre Foundation in February, 2013

[ 2 ] INSEE

[ 3 ] See Housing crisis. Mechanical exclusion and allocation of office. synthesis report LAD September 1994
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