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(en) Courant Alternatif CA #229 - Islamophobia in France Sainte Secularism divisive pray for us! (fr) [machine translation]

Date Mon, 22 Apr 2013 18:38:31 +0300


Institutional and public, and especially daily, the system in which we live steeped in racism and fear of the other. The term "Islamophobia" falls into the category of those words where the opacity vies with intensity. Contrary to what the basic stereotypes convey the spread of Islam in the French regions dates or the end of the war in Algeria or the attacks of 11 September 2001, although since these events, "musulmanophobie "- in contrast to speak of" Islamophobia "as that term has deep controversies - took much larger proportions very quickly. ---- Islam has been present in Europe for many centuries. Whether it among others France, Greece, Turkey, the Balkans, Spain or Sicily, the interpenetration of religious communities is effective long.

While the historicity of religions proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that when it comes to more or less systematically massacring each other and to oppress, no objection is actually invoked, as the other said, "Kill them all, God will recognize his own." In fact, beyond dogma, respect and tolerance are not strictly religious purposes, purposes that incense bearers from all sides would have us believe owned by their respective chapels. Religions and their representatives are only vectors of capitalism, we know that in the end only want their sinecures. However, everyone is free to indulge in nonsense that reassure long as they remain in the order of the individual sphere. But where does tolerance and where religious radicalism begins?

Currently in France, Islam has become the second most practiced religion after christianisme1. But just like the latter, the Muslim religion does not appear as a whole, because it incorporates a whole host of different expressions and practices of various traditions (Sunni, Shia, Sufi, Maliki, Alevism ...)

We hope that here is no need to demonstrate the unfair and harmful characters in their wake driven by religion on the minds of women and men through the whole population. The "musulmanophobie" is a tool of domination and subjugation among others, it is a vector of xenophobia among the permanent offensive fueled by reactionary forces. The status obscurantism and / or religious is never far away and no word is innocent, the term "Islamophobia" is no exception to the rule. It should ask ourselves what it has meaning as well as those that implies.

A word variable geometry

The sources seem muddy and confused about the origin of this word. One of them, as unreliable as any other attributes to the Iranian revolution during the 80s when the mullahs have called feminists in this country by this term thus designating them as bad Muslims, because only with not the veil.

Anyway, the term "Islamophobia" is a neologism that refers to the opposition, fear or prejudice against Islam and then the fear and rejection of people of Muslim faith.

The "Islamophobia" theory refers to hostility towards Islam, or an attitude considered discriminatory against people of this religion and mix of North African and Arab residents. On other2 occurrences from a colonial literature suggest this term in 1910 in French. Whatever the etymological origin to which we refer, it is undeniable that racism against residents of North African or Arab origin is a reality that goes back to ancient times. Of course, nowadays, other communities such as those of Roma for example, are also widely stigmatized by the oppression of the state and the information bludgeoned repeatedly by the media to soak fear in households. Scapegoats change according to the times, but not consistent processes designate: Cathars, Jews, gays, Palestinians, Protestants, immigrants, communists and anarchists among others, the list is endless. The only enemy is to designate that which divides. It is very interesting to note that the concept of particular social resonance: its use is widely overused by its users. In the mouth and ears of many people, a job is clearly used as a violent charge, a anathÃmatisation marking the forehead of his interlocutor with a seal of shame designating the condemnation if we spend our lyricism. In short, the word, as can the word "fascist" or "anti-Semite" has uses variable geometry according to the use and to whom it is addressed.

So we might as well hear the speech of a radical Muslim carrying a backward and archaic vision of Islam in those mocking intellectuals falsely lay wishing defend "republican" values. Make no mistake, because it is here that a form of racism respectable, good complexion, because it is used primarily to refer to Muslims. A term scapegoat as the "younger neighborhoods" or "travelers", ie: the stylistic flexibility of understatement in the service of ostracism.

The anti-Islam argument has always been a useful argument for those wishing to justify their hatred of the Arabs and their refusal to accueillir3 but being afraid of something is not absolutely identical to dislike something . We can also observe the powerful resurgence of colonial stereotypes justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims. Islam is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening (!'s Famous phobia) and necessarily supporting terrorism, this look is straight from the imaginary racist: clash of civilizations, religion used in the service of a political ideology and political and military purposes.

Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static, unable to respond to change and it is true that religious radicals were rarely at the forefront of progressivism, but whatever their edges. Always in principle the same homogenizing vision, Islam is seen as inferior, as barbaric, irrational and sexist. On the other hand, the traditional Catholic culture can also be proud to be a model of virtue civilizing of the Inquisition to the present day. Specifically, the anti-Muslim hostility has become a natural thing for normale4 many of our contemporaries.

Psychosocial phenomenon

The development of hatred or fear of Muslims and their religion is partly due to unconscious processes. Wilhelm Reich, one of the founders of Freudo-Marxism and the Frankfurt School demonstrated in one of his literature.5 that individuals create stereotypes they project onto others and that it actively influences society and human behavior.

These stereotypes create a false consciousness and this is one of the major contributions of the Frankfurt School as the analysis of this false consciousness. This has been a systematic investigation at a time when racist ideologies developed and where they were treated especially anti-Semitism.

At the end of the war, in 1947, other sociologists such as Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, in turn posed the central question of Wilhelm Reich on mass psychology and tried to provide a theoretical answer to "What the mysterious provision masses to be mesmerized by any despotism, their self-destructive affinity racist paranoia "6.

Criticism of subjugation by industrial propaganda of an entire system, centered on the cold rationality of domination system is required. This "mystification of the masses" is linked to the totalitarian administration of things or their false semblant5 and leads us to the critique of mass culture "masses demoralized by a life constantly subjected to pressure of the system [and] that the only sign of civilization is a behavior automaton likely rare bursts of anger and rebellion. " Exposed to ideological injunctions (mercantile advertising), the masses find themselves engulfed in the heart of a system of alienation which Adorno and Horkheimer leads to ruthless criticism of a "society of desperate [...] easy prey for offense ".7 But it was the gang of fascist mass as total and totalitarian dissolution of the Enlightenment, who deserved to be subjected to critical analysis, particularly in terms of its ideological foundation: the antisemitism. "The fascists did not see Jews as a minority, but as the other race, the embodiment of absolute negative principle: the happiness of the world depends on their extermination" .8

The theoretical interest of the founding work of Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer was also pointing the role of stereotypes and labels in the anti-Semitic prejudice (racist): "Anti-Semitism is not a characteristic of the anti-Semitic label is common to any line mentality accepting labels. The fierce hatred for all that is different is teleologically inherent in this mentality ".9

All we are concerned with these labels, often unbeknownst to us, a movement, a word, a phrase, a thought, but it is not okay to take, it is more when one considers the truth stereotype . Recover and educate themselves is up to chacun.10 This interest is also extended to other forms of waste from the one in which it recognizes no alter ego. The work done by Reich, Adorno and Horkheimer can also be applied to those who reject cultural differences or worship of Islam and implement the same fears and internalized anxiety and other disproportionate other masses that passed in other time vis-Ã-vis the judaÃtà or other ipseity.

As for the phobia is an irrational fear by definition, and in this case, it is a fear that is instilled and expertly reproduced, starting from the elites and ruling classes to be considered all along the level classes.

No matter what some theorists and their hypocritical and delusional uses this word say, it's always the person and his beliefs were / are / will be covered and not his ideas. To banish a community: sexual, ethnic or religious, it is simply shirk more or less conscient vis-Ã-vis others.

A divisive and secularism in isolation

In France, secularism was coined during the French Revolution to the Catholic Church away from politics. Quarrel powerful again. Even today one can witness and suffer through the Jacobin and centralist straight from republicanism.

It is a holy reverence secularism must be under penalty of excommunication Republican. Let's be clear, these days there is less to fear from the government if you are Jewish or Christian faith that if you are Muslim. All communities are not treated the same way. What are the interests at stake require for these divisions? If Islam is the second most practiced in France, the French state does not he fear that political domination is undermined by that of Islam? Quarrel powerful again. Note also that with the magnitude of the economic crisis, the excitation of collective fears is even more reinforced by the media that some languages ââare loosened.

Recent statements by the actress VÃronique Genest about Islam and the hype thereto are revealing. We are not fooled by this pre-apocalyptic atmosphere maintained to pressurize us even more. The French state is inconceivable that Islam civilized integrating perfectly with the values ââof the host country, but make this argument is not it just as stigmatizing the Muslim religion to others? So what? It would therefore be good and bad Muslims? Indeed, governments maintain a monolithic vision of Islam and without roughness. While this is just the opposite, and it is only with the most radicals found this homogenizing vision of the religious community religious. It is quite interesting to return laÃcards and religious radicals with each other in their speeches, because ultimately, the corollary of "Islamophobia" is a compartmentalized vision of secularism. We did not disguise the fact that racism in there removing the direct relationship to "race." Because in the end, even mutant, racism is what it is: a deliberate attempt to deny otherness, a projection of his own frustrations on each other and we find this pattern both in the lambda asshole alpha asshole. Suffice to say that the Muslims of France, it smells bundle if they are not French enough and if they are too ratonnade Maghreb. Hold on to your elastic, secular Riposte only has to behave themselves: "And, of course, never any condemnation of anti-Christian provocations yet indisputable. Yet we remember that the same socialist family had not failed to denounce the "provocations" when the current was stopped on a dark trailer - only circulating on the Internet - a film mocking Mohammed or a cartoon offensive to Muslims, published in Charlie Hebdo. The Socialist Party confirms what many already knew: the name of the republican secularism, it moves any "Islamophobia" while applauding every demonstration of "Christianophobia." For fundamentalist secularism, the enemy is Christianity. It is essential that every Catholic to become aware ".11

After these fascistic celebration, back to basic principles of openness to others and respect for his person and his unconditional freedom to believe (or not) to a truth of his choice, revealed or not. For all who are reveling hold an intangible truth of human name or gods always represent a danger to progressive minds.

In accordance with the ideas and actions of Peter TÃvanian, it is best to promote open to other cultures, without leveling secularism. "It is obviously not the question for us to dictate the right way to think or talk (...) but if we do not pretend to know the proper way of speaking, we consider that there are undeniably bad" .12

As the words are important, it is desirable to limit their fair value. Any seed fanatic deny all this against all odds for his own purposes.

In conclusion, the separation of church and state was a good thing since we finally have a choice. The choice between the plague and cholera instead of the plague AND cholera. Not spit on any effort. Truce wickedness, because despite this separation and the establishment of secularism, we are now witnessing the deterioration of its meaning and the perversion of noble values ââsuch as tolerance and fairness. The state and religious authorities identify the same patterns more or less nuanced: rigid hierarchy, obedience to authority, uniformity of thought and prohibition of any collective inclination, because everything has to come from above. A chasm between what secularism evokes and how it is practiced by the French Republic, this beautiful republican equality stating that no opinion is above the other and that everyone is equal before the law of the to knowledge acquisition. Liberty, equality and fraternity yet it was a good program to start.

Still, everyone is influenced by his own beliefs consciously or not (the authors of this article included). To what extent do separate things? How is it possible to respond collectively to this problem?

The anti-clericalism of the French did he pay? While the churches are empty, but supermarkets are always full. Although nowadays ... Each has its measure a grain of truth, truth lived, the collective, the shared and experienced. What other truth that sharing can we trust?

The term "Islamophobia" is a simple word, and despite the endless stream of meaning that revolves around him. This is only a word, but it is also a tool, a manipulative tactic used by the state to divide and conquer. It is a word that discriminates, a word that means a collective fear, and never invoke the rational and clear criticism of Islam.

Aurelian and Mamatt

OCL Strasbourg, March 2013

1 Lack of reliable statistics about

2 Alain Quellien "Muslim politics in French West Africa" ââE.Larose, Paris 1910. The term Islamophobia seems as page 133 as a subset.

3 new observer, November 23, 1989

4 Islamophobia: - anti-racist organization British Runnymede Trust challenge for us all, anti-racist organization.

5 Wilhelm Reich, "The Mass Psychology of Fascism", Paris, 1977

6 Horkheimer (Max) and Adorno (Theodor W.), The Dialectic of Enlightenment, Paris, Gallimard, 1974, p. 16

5 Adorno (Theodor W.) Prisms: critique of culture and society, Paris, Payot, 1986 and Horkheimer (Max), traditional theory and critical theory, Paris, Gallimard, 1974.

7 Horkheimer (Max) and Adorno (Theodor W.), The Dialectic of Enlightenment, op. cit. p. 161.

8 Ibid., P. 177.

9 Ibid., P. 215.

10 Marianne Nizet, "Wilhelm Reich. The Mass Psychology of Fascism "in The political psychology books, Number 7, July 2005.

11 Alain Escada, President of CIVITAS

12 Andrà and Sylvie Tissot TÃvanian in the creation in 2000 of the collective "Words are important"
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