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(en) Aurora Obreira #25 - The nuclear issue in Brazil: problems that accumulate (pt)[machine translation]

Date Thu, 11 Apr 2013 10:07:21 +0300


The use of atomic energy in Brazil is not a recent event. Our involvement with this kind of process goes back at least to the construction of the first nuclear weapons in America (USA). There is a possibility that we have contributed to the construction of the first nuclear devices dropped on Japan in 1945. It is speculated that Brazil has provided material used in the manufacture of the Atomic Bomb. Arguably the USA technicians were collecting and panning in Brazil, mainly in the Northeast in the '40s of the twentieth century. The use of radioactive elements, the handling of such minerals - like sands - the use of radioactivity in research and treatment of disease is not new in our country today. ---- During the 1950s he was also in the plans and objectives of state and Government the possibility of building nuclear weapons by Brazil.

The design on the screen to what is known now has external resistors and maybe at the same time, internal which eventually allegedly "delaying" the construction, or rather saying delaying full access to the entire chain of production of nuclear weapons. The principle assumes that Brazil currently have integral domain and installed capacity objective of making significant number of atomic bombs. This level would also Israel and South Africa is not excluded that compete North Korea and Iran Specifically, public domain, meanwhile partake of the Iraqi nuclear program, where uranium supply.
exploitation and processing - industrialization - the sands and even other minerals like rare earths, thorium, etc.., used in the atom chain, is not innovation in Brazil, although everything contingenciado government that virtually centralizes its monopoly, regardless of the purpose for which they are intended. Obviously all these procedures and decisions were taken without any public consultation. Cynically Governments "democratic" that succeeded the military left at least bring the issue to the agenda in discussions of collective interests. There has, for example, a "participatory budgeting" where national was discussing the need or importance of building atomic submarine or more nuclear plants. Here we note that issues that relate solely to Brazilian society, are treated as a matter of state absurdly thus omitting the public the real dimension of the decisions taken.
Between Exception (1964/1984) it was almost that fully militarized, under the aegis of national security and pseudo peculiar competence of the State. That time is invested in thesis in peaceful use of nuclear energy, with the start of construction of two nuclear plants - Angra 1, its construction started in 1972 and operating from 01.01.1985 and Angra II with its works started in 1976 and entering into commercial operation on 06.21.2000 - and a third acquisition, this still works (2013) (It is expected that the unit will start generating power in late 2015). In both nuclear agreements either with the United States and then to Germany, was predicted greater number of Nuclear Plants which have not yet materialized.
called The strategic plan - military - to what is known, rode up some type structures: St. José dos Campos after Aramar (Iperó - SP), the "Centre of Aeronautical Technology" project that developed rocket and Serra do Cachimbo (Pará) presumptive field tests, aiming to nuclear testing and also the construction of admissible atomic submarine . Parallel to this is the start uranium prospecting in Minas Gerais - Wells Caldas (1981 to 1995) - in order to feed the energy sectors - civil and military - with total self-sufficiency. Regarding the nuclear issue remains controversial because of the dark treatment given by the different governments, already regarding the atomic submarine is already having an annual disbursement of funds of the Union, with a view to ensuring its construction (estimate) by 2022.
country where a there are many energy alternatives to be used - water, wind, solar, biofuel, etc.. - And even the conventional principle, although already generating unacceptable high masses of carbon, such as coal, oil, natural gas and even the burning of garbage, wood and bagasse would still be preferable to the uncertainty of the nuclear estate.
Investments made the expense of the public treasury earmarked for Angra 1, 1.8 million - may have been 6 billion - dollars - in all its stages of construction. Regarding the Angra 2 speech in spending between 9 and 10 billion. Angra 3 will theoretically higher capacity and lower cost (Figures released in 2012 estimated the "investment" of 10 billion reais). As for the lifetime only have uncertainties which are greater still when it comes to what we spend on the future of decommissioning. Handled entire chain of radioactive agents is totally insecure and difficult to manage. The uranium - yellow cake (uranium concentrate) - extracted from our mines - currently Caetité - BA - offers a number of inconveniences. Besides the risks in extracting - threatening the integrity of mining workers and permanent possibility of contamination of putting at risk populations bordering the tills. Shipping outside Brazil, for conversion into gas, and its consequent return for use in Nuclear Plants, represents a continuing risk, may cause serious tragedy in an accident en route. The number of sensitive issues that involve the use of radioactive materials is increasing. In addition to the aforementioned risk in the extraction and transportation, we have the worrisome question of the fate of the waste (radioactive waste). although Brazil is already working for decades with radioactivity and its inputs is not yet a final repository for waste from plants already in operation , getting into these pools inside these. There's "prediction" of having the final repository in operation for the year 2015, we managed not only to find yet (March 2013) updated information on the subject and do not even know if the place already defined. The materials of weak radioactivity - like clothes, masks for disposal, etc.. - Are stored in containers stored in warehouses built near the plants and not provided for in the initial drafting of the aforementioned plant plants. Technically Nuclear Plant, mines, transportation logistics, waste disposal sites, decommissioning should be operating when all necessary measures - possible - security were present, which is not the case in Brazil, where everything operates on a provisional basis - on an environmental license temporary - from mining to final destination of the waste. The bane of Goiânia - accident with cesium 137 in 1987, with its implications translated into deaths, contamination and relevant expenses not served to raise awareness about enough to fully invest in nuclear safety in our country. Example is the flagship of the Mine Uranium Wells Caldas - (Mining-Industrial Complex Plateau Wells Caldas (CIPC) - transformed with its deactivation in deposit tailings, from the mining itself and from the factory Nuclemon that worked in Sao Paulo - they proceeded in Nuclemon the extraction of heavy minerals using solvents, from monazite sands. Degradation of local mining combined with waste from Sao Paulo is currently cause for immense concern of the residents of the City of Wells Caldas, in the situation that seeks remedies the federal compensation because the subject to vary is sub judice and thus postponed the necessary measures and members of the decommissioning process. Not different is the situation of workers Nuclemon, fighting in the courts for the right to basic health compromised in years working with the Plant Santo Amaro (USAN). Timely noting that apart from the use of Nuclear Energy State have done, possibly more than three thousand points in Brazil that work with radioactive elements which produce wastewater of varying degrees of contamination whose destination is theoretically accompanied by the surveillance. "Control" chain atom initially this affection the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - federal agency under the Ministry of Science and Technology - which paradoxically manages mining and operation of nuclear power plants while oversees everything that concerns the matter. The Federal Public Servants working in surveillance generally are doubly hamstrung in the free exercise of their profession, or are unable to impound the illegal labor and suffer curtailment in its activities, because they are sympathetic to the body that should oversee. treadmill this problems only get worse, because the claims repeatedly CNEN not be required to comply with the dictates of ANVISA, Health Ministry, IBAMA and supervision of the Ministry of Labour, thereby disrespecting both the laws of Brazil as international agreements signed by our country objetivariam that guarantee a minimum of security in the use of nuclear energy. tragedy in Japan Nuclear Plant - March 2011 - where such reactors are dismantled, shy raised debates within Brazilian society although the limitation of these plus the selfless struggle of environmentalists, reinforces the need for a debate in Brazilian society which unfailingly leads to the withdrawal of state decisions regarding the use of nuclear energy for the scope of civil society, making at least everything absolutely transparent. Pietro Anarchista Caxias do Sul, March 2013.
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