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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire #224 - 1933: Andalusia two fingers revolutionary fire (fr) [machine translation]
Fri, 08 Mar 2013 15:41:14 +0200
Beginning in January 1933, while the Second Spanish Republic was less than two years of
existence, the anarcho-syndicalist CNT tries to boost she wants insurrection demonstration
of strength and popular education for its activists. Mixed success at the federal level,
the insurgency ends in tragedy repressive Andalusia. ---- Andalusia is one of those
countries which carries in its etymology arbitrary societal which it is subjected.
Al-Andalus is the Arabization of the name Visigoth who baptizes this country by a
contemptuous " chosen land the prize out ... ". Fertile ground for the development of a
revolutionary proletariat stirring and double character modernizing archaic and in the
words of researcher Dolidier Arnaud [ 1 ] and sometimes even "millennial" by the Stalinist
Eric Hobsbawm [ 2 ].
Already in the second half of the nineteenth century, the country was rocked by claims
cantonalist movement, whose credo is the autonomy of municipalities and their free
federation, will lead a true Revolution in 1873. The model will largely power and interest
the young Spanish anarchism whose acquaintances are more than obvious with cantonalisme.
Then comes the time of the attacks of the Mano Negra which can be said for simplicity it
symbolizes the radicalization of the Spanish branch of the First International latter once
banned in Spain and went into hiding [ 3 ].
Practices are then without a radical call and return to the actions of the Russian
populists or Irish Fenians in the same period. Andalusian nationalism, itself, is close to
anarchism [ 4 ] in particular through its founding father Blas Infante.
This burden anarchist Andalusia, historian JosÃ Luis GutiÃrrez Molina sums it up: " We
can now say that, in general, during these decades [the first third of the twentieth
century] Anarchism in Andalusia, was not ideology isolated marginal population and strong
terrorist tendencies, on the contrary, he was a strong competitor in the social and
political system prevailing at that time. "[ 5 ]
Proof of this power, the CNT claims for Andalusia 110,000 members in 1931. Far ahead of
all other labor organizations.
Return of the Republic
After several years of dictablanda (soft dictatorship) Primero de Rivera, Spain becomes a
Republic for the second time in the early 1930s [ 6 ]. It is proclaimed April 14, 1931,
two days after the municipal elections see the defeat of monarchist camps and exile of
King Alfonso XIII. End of June, it is a majority of Republicans and Socialists who win
elections to parliament. President, Niceto AlcalÃ-Zamora, coming from the right and
liberal monarchist but he chose a Republican as head of government, Manuel AzaÃa, to avoid
a sling left parties. A government that is "reason" when people's expectations are even
higher due to the color of the new power and social status.
In 1931, Spain is a country of 24,693,000 inhabitants, of whom one-third live in poverty,
the rate of life expectancy does not exceed 50 years and the infant mortality rate is 5 â
him. Between 30 and 50% of the population is illiterate, 50 000 men and women religious
"work" still in the country. The average salary does not exceed 4.3 pesetas per day and
the land is monopolized by landowners (landowners) feudal.
It is in this context that opens a new round of agitation CNT. The festivities start in
the north of Catalonia - in the current comarques Bages and BerguedÃ: history retains this
movement as the insurrection of Alto Llobregat. January 19, 1932 [ 7 ], miners strike in
the city of Figols requisition the weapons of SomatÃn [ 8 ]. The insurgency expands, the
red and black flag replaces the Republic was proclaimed libertarian communism ... Quickly,
the government has called the rebels " with booklet bandits [union] "responds by sending
troops and on 23 the military has taken over all the besieged cities except Figols. The
same day, the National Committee of the CNT decided to call a general strike, but it is
not followed up.
27, the first insurrection ended. However, the government has a heavy hand and not content
to close the local CNT insurgent cities, it imprisons hundreds of activists on a prison
ship that set sail for Africa with 104 prisoners on board, Buenos Aires . The boat toured
the Spanish coastal cities then went to the Canary Islands and Africa. In many cities
where the boat anchored, workers went on strike in solidarity with the prisoners. For six
months, until September and the release of remaining prisoners, the tension mounts.
In Seville, the voltage is also strong: during this period, the ley de fugas [ 9 ] is
regularly applied in the MarÃa Luisa Park. The government seems to be taken of "
obsession to public order "in the words of Eduardo Barriobero HerrÃn. On August 10, a
seditious movement organized by military monarchist General JosÃ Sanjurjo tent, from
Seville, to seize power. In Madrid, the coup quickly fails as a result of betrayal. In
Seville, the Sanjurjada triumph at first but the CNT responds with a call to an uprising
and anarchists attacked and burned the military and aristocratic circles of the city.
Again, the coup failed.
In parallel, the new Government of Catalonia also behaves in authoritarian and repressive
state by performing a systematic hunt everything anarchist color. This repression diehard
prepares the uprising in January 1933.
Libertarian uprisings of 1933
Early December 1932, during a plenum area of ââthe CNT, the railway workers' union
(minority in the profession) wants confederation supports its call for a general strike
for wage improvements. Finally abandoned this idea was taken up by the Defence Committee
of Catalonia. The idea is simple: practice the "revolutionary gymnastics' and not allow
the Republic to consolidate too.
The date is January 8, 1933. But the enthusiasm of activists beyond confederal
instructions. As of January 1, high power bombs explode in La Felguera in Asturias, and
trouble broke out in Seville where bars are attacked. 2 and 3 January, unrest continues
around the country. 8 came two heavy loads explode in Barcelona and we count the dead on
However, the media coverage of this movement in the press of the CNT resulted alert the
power locks leaders and positioned his troops. The insurgency is not spreading as it
should have - especially since the general strike rail eagerly awaited not coming.
However, a number of localities in the Levant as revolt in Andalusia.
In Seville, vehicles and trams were overturned and burned, shots were exchanged with
police. At Rinconada, is proclaimed libertarian communism. In Medina Sidonia, the
insurgency is not a flash in the pan through a combination of circumstances that led up to
impressive military force.
The massacre of Casas Viejas-
I must say that Andalusia boils at this time and that strikes are increasing since the
early 1930s [ 10 ].
But the epicenter of this movement it is in the small village (2,000 inhabitants) of Casas
Viejas, lost in the countryside of Cadiz. On the night of January 10 to 11, the CNT took
the position of the Guardia Civil in two wounded and proclaim libertarian communism.
Reproduced in an article by JosÃ Peirats, Eduardo Guzman describes: "For a few hours,
workers are masters of the village, was proclaimed libertarian communism. From 7:00 to
4:00 p.m., they may believe that the revolution triumphed in Spain. The red and black flag
waving in the wind, the armed peasants are masters of the situation. And in these times of
temporary victory, the workers do not think about revenge anyone, destroy anything nor
molest their potential enemies. '
However, the revolution did not triumph, farmers are really master of none and a company
guard assault led by Captain Manuel Rojas is not very far.
Activists who participated in the uprising flee into the surrounding fields when he saw a
small twenty soldiers. Eight people, including old Francisco Cruz GutiÃrrez said "
Seisdedos "and his son are hiding in their poor hut. Members who have already killed one
entering the city gates fuck houses one by one until reaching the Cruz family. But then
they do not expect any resistance, two guards fall assaults, including one death. Four
more were wounded during the hours that follow. At night, two people escaped - whose
daughter Seisdedos La Libertaria.
These escapes exasperated soldiers who, after having vainly attempted to remove occupants
in a hail of grenades decide in the morning and about Rojas - arrived during the night -
set fire to the hut. There were no survivors. Worse, the Assault Guards decided to grab
what they believe to be known activists and down on the scene of the fire. In total, 19
men, two women and a child who died under the bullets of republican government. Two civil
guards and a guard assault fell. Disproportion regular throbbing when the army is in
charge of "pacification". Because it is ultimately that it: colonial methods applied to
Riffians imported directly from Morocco and Spain.
Meanwhile, 11 January 1933, the CNT explained in his diary: " an uprising is defeated,
another rises, a strike is resolved and another strobes that a riot was soothed and
another bursts, stronger . "
If these events have come to us is that, despite the government's desire to conceal this
drama, scandal less than a month after the massacre of Casas Viejas,. A parliamentary
inquiry is made that will result in a lawsuit. Director General of Security, Arturo
MenÃndez is dismissed. In 1934, Captain Rojas was convicted and sentenced to 21 years in
prison for the murder of 14 people. But, spiteful, Justice is careful to also condemn
farmers leave 16 languish in prison (up to six years) for possession of a weapon of war
and action against the armed forces.
Guillaume de Gracia (AL Toulouse)
1910: Creation of the CNT.
1927: Creation of the ISP.
April 14, 1931: Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
January 19, 1932: Insurrection CNT Alto Llobregat. It lasts for five days.
January 8, 1933: Start of the second insurrection organized by the Senior defense of the
CNT in order to destabilize the Republic and its members used to take up arms.
Disturbances in several parts of the country.
January 10-11: In the night, peasants seized Casas Viejas, and declare libertarian communism.
January 11-12: See and fire at the family cabin Cruz. Execution of 14 peasants rounded up
partly at random.
1934: Condemnation of Captain Manuel Rojas and 16-Casas Viejas farmers.
July 19, 1936: In Barcelona, ââthe CNT workers outweigh the victory against the
Nationalists. In Seville, Captain Rojas is released by General Sanjurjo. He was later
assigned to command the Falange in Granada.
[ 1 ] In "Social struggles in rural Andalusia: uses and meanings of the word campesino
from 1931 to 1936," Cahiers de civilization contemporary Spanish, Fall 2012 .
[ 2 ] In the excellent well qu'hautain Rebels primitive, University of Manchester, 1959
[ 3 ] Clara E. Lida, La Mano Negra, The Escape, 2011.
[ 4 ] Or consubstantial. That said, the Andalusia is also the stamping ground of Christian
anarchism. Two versions sui generis this philosophy.
[ 5 ] JosÃ Luis GutiÃrrez Molina, "y el AndalucÃa anarquismo (1868-1936)," Ayer 45, 2002.
[ 6 ] Read "April 1931: The Spanish CNT between republic and revolution," Alternative
libertarian April 2011.
[ 7 ] JosÃ Peirats in his monumental The CNT in the revoluciÃn espaÃola is the 18th.
[ 8 ] Militia paramilitary Catalan landowners who would later reorganized by including the
fight against Franco maquis
[ 9 ] applied in all latitudes, this law is to execute a prisoner by shooting him in the
back and then he tried to explain to flee
[ 10 ] Brey Gerard and Jacques Maurice demonstrated in "Casas Viejas-. Reformism and
anarchism in Andalusia (1870-1933), " The Social Movement of April-May 1973.
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