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(en) France, Courant Alternatif CA #226 - Egypt - Pharaoh and big brothers (fr) [machine translation]

Date Thu, 14 Feb 2013 17:19:36 +0200

In the winter fog that is sweeping the country "Arab revolutions" appear a few events that confirm the fears expressed two years ago, the outcome of these "revolutions", fears that they are not the high aspirations of rebel-es and the price paid by the people who carried out these rebellions. As is always the present that illuminates the past, even if that past is still very close to the recent events in Egypt and the political crisis in this country can enlighten us on this "revolution", its origins and the various protagonists. This backward can help us better understand the current situation in which Egypt is diving. At the beginning of the "Arab Spring", the various media and political analysts place great emphasis on the differences between companies Tunisian, Libyan and Egyptian demographic differences, geographical, historical, political and economic developments, etc.. It is clear that the three revolutions accomplished practically the same result: the Islamists to power. There is therefore scope to examine this phenomenon and to investigate how this can happen despite the different character of each of the companies concerned. What are the common factors that generate the same results?

Social factors

An event as important as the "revolution" in Egypt January 25, 2011 can not be the result of a single cause whatever its importance or dominance. It is clearly in its scope, the result of several factors combined in an explosive mixture, triggered 25 January 2011. Internal factors cover several levels of society. Firstly, there is the social situation of the working class with unemployment, poverty, insecurity on the one hand more and more of the population. There are more than 10 million unemployed, 20 to 30% of the population lives below the poverty line, but must also take account of the corruption of unions that are under control or power or Islamists or both at once! The situation of the poorest continues to deteriorate, the repeated attacks against the working class and the repression against trade unionists led successive revolts in all sectors of the Egyptian economy since 2004. The capitalist regime of Mubarak has initiated several mechanisms to promote the bourgeoisie, it goes "structural adjustment" to the "liberation of the economy" or "openness" which simply means the liquidation of all social gains the Egyptian-ing and privatization of large enterprises lowest price possible. "The assets owned by the state industrial, commercial and financial, agricultural land and urban or desert lands-have been" sold ". Who? A businessmen collusion, close to the government: senior officers, officials, rich merchants returned from their exile in the Gulf equipped with beautiful fortunes (in addition political and financial support of the Muslim Brotherhood). At what price? A ridiculous prices, incommensurate with the real value of assets. "Samir Amin, in the journal Africa Asia, December 2012.

The situation is not much better farmers than workers in large urban areas. After the revolution of July 1952, Nasser has distributed land to peasants landowners that allowed them to significantly improve their lives and be able to cultivate their own land. From 1996, the Mubarak regime, based on previous laws time Sadat confiscated peasant land and has made the big landowners, which caused huge demonstrations and protests of farmers. These confrontations between landlords and police on one side and the other farmers have left dozens dead and led to numerous arrests. Other offensive and attacks against farmers followed: rent increase arable land, rising prices of seeds, fertilizers, etc.. All this has contributed greatly to degrade the standard of living of farmers. To this must be added the problem of water, despite the Nile is the main source, the average annual per capita per year and fell in 2376 m3 in 1950 to 800 cubic meters in 2005, it would be only 600 cubic meters in 2015, below 1000 cubic meters of water per capita per year considered the poverty line in water and the regional average of 1,200 cubic meters of water. Decrease attributed to the growth of the population from 20 million in 1950 to more than 80 million people now but also a disproportionate use of water by the wealthy class and rich sumptuous villas and castles with pools and garden thousand and one night, tourist cities, golf courses, etc.. and a policy that favors the rich at all levels to eventually privatize the water supply. Suddenly, hundreds of villages are deprived of drinking water, small farms are abandoned for lack of water for irrigation, this situation has led Egyptian-ing to carry the "revolt of thirst" with various demonstrations and occupations. This situation is not likely to improve, everything leads to believe otherwise. The Ethiopian project a huge dam on the Nile launched April 2, 2011 for a dam with a capacity of 62 billion m3, will be the largest dam in Africa and Egypt will entirely dependent on the Ethiopia in terms of water supply as are already in Iraq and Syria against Turkey, which controls the Tigris and Euphrates. Secondly, the awareness of the middle class the extent of the corruption, degradation and fundamental freedoms of economic disaster resulting from the large-scale privatization of companies, etc.. The frustration of a majority of the political class not being able to share power with the Mubarak regime, including the Muslim Brotherhood. "The Egyptian Movement for Change" Kifaya, is generally considered to trigger a broad awareness in Egypt since 2004. It considers that the failure of the Egyptian society to achieve a dignified life for every citizen is the lack of fundamental freedoms, confiscated by an authoritarian and repressive. He then seeks common bonds to consolidate all forces in the country-left forces, nationalists, Islamists, liberals, etc. - To change society peacefully and get a "real democracy" where everyone has a say. Kifaya was able to break the fear, to introduce the possibility to challenge, to demonstrate and the right to organize open day, which was then unimaginable. Subsequently, Egypt was born a multitude of movements in all sectors of society. The movement for the independence of university workers to change, youth movement, doctors, writers and artists, journalists, engineers, judges, teachers, the unemployed, the personal health insurance, movements for the right to organize against torture ..... and even economists have created "Not for sale in Egypt" in response to the wave of privatization. These movements are the expression of the middle class against the continuing deterioration of living conditions and also the eviction of a role it considers legitimate and historic Egypt and its marginalization. A final factor is the youth who saw no future but began to organize with new means of communication, create networks of contestation and develop awareness of the need to change everything. In particular, the April 6 movement, created in 2008 to support the strike of textile workers Almahallah and calls for a general strike. This movement is actively involved in the events of 25 January 2011, with dozens of other groups that are mostly related to political parties: Socialist Youth, Muslim youth, young democrats. The "revolution" Egypt is the work of all and every Egyptian-ing of all classes, it is only after the departure of Mubarak that the bourgeoisie betrayed his forced alliance with the working class - could she do otherwise? - and returned another alliance with the army at the beginning but later she called to protest bourgeoisie more and more credible in the eyes of the street: the Muslim Brotherhood, to complete the revolutionary process that back in business. In the second round of presidential elections, Mahmoud Morsy won the support of all the forces of the left-Trotskyists, including but despite overwhelming support his victory by a short head.

The Muslim Brotherhood The Muslim Brotherhood were formed as a group or association in 1928 Ismailiyya north of Egypt to solve social, economic and national by the application of Islam. At the beginning of the "revolution" July 23, 1952, the Muslim Brotherhood supported Nasser among the "Free Officers" who led the coup, there were officers from the current or very close. Following the enactment of the law banning political parties in 1953, the Muslim Brotherhood, who present themselves as not being religious group policy, then remain the only organized political current that can provide support to Nasser when needed and to As they begin to demand privileges and more prominent in the state. Nasser does not like blackmail and it follows a very violent confrontation between them which ends ban the group in 1954. This repression against the Muslim Brotherhood will be more than 300 victims by execution or death by torture, and hundreds of arrests and disappearances. This situation continued under Sadat and Mubarak, despite periods of tolerance. In the early 2000s, the Muslim Brotherhood make alliances and concessions with the regime, they participate in elections in 2000 and 2005 and get 20% of the seats, this group became the first political force in Egypt. They are found in trade union bodies where they were able to take control of the unions of doctors, engineers, lawyers and pharmacists. After triggering events, January 25, 2011, the Muslim Brotherhood formed a new party the "Party for Freedom and Justice" June 6, 2011 they get 47% of parliamentary seats in the first post-revolution parliamentary elections . But the High Constitutional Court judge election as illegal and unconstitutional demand the dissolution of parliament on 14 June 2012, it is the beginning of a brief war between the army and the Muslim Brotherhood. The Muslim Brotherhood are a structured organization with a direction, an executive and a guide "Murchid" considered political and ideological leader. The current guide, number 8, is Muhammed Badia, Professor of Pathology and the first to be elected and not appointed on 16 January 2010, regarded as the true ruler of Egypt, saw many slogans against which it is the object events. This group has ramifications in the Arab world, there is power in Tunisia and Libya, and is characterized by its extreme opportunism, its ability to adapt to all the powers and quickly handle a situation. They have 3 or 4 days to reach Tahir Square and catch the train to the challenge, and when the army took control of the situation they rallied to her and asked the demonstrators to clear the square and go Tahir at home. The number of members is a secret, despite estimates of journalists and researchers who estimate that between 500,000 and 2 million people. Most belong to the middle class: doctors, lawyers, engineers, professors, businessmen and entrepreneurs, etc.. Historically this movement represents the most reactionary wing of Egyptian capitalism with landlords and big farmers then their base has expanded to encompass a large part of merchants and traders, especially those who work with the Arab Gulf. It represents a marginal capitalism, not global, because the Muslim Brotherhood is absent in certain sectors such as tourism because of their position on women and liquor, and indeed they were able to exploit this position wobbly and shifted themselves as opponents of capitalism.


Qatar is a small country of 11,400 km2 with a population of one million and a half inhabitants, 60% of immigrant workers mainly from Pakistan, India and Iran. But it is the third largest producer of natural gas in the world after Iran and Russia, the largest exporter of liquefied natural gas. It is quite amazing that such a small country has much ambition to want as big a role in the Arab events for two years. Opinions diverge to find a convincing explanation that gives the reasons for such involvement that will control gas resources to want to have a leading position in the Arab world through a long-term by investing around the world in case the surplus gas is depleted. Qatar has three formidable and effective weapon with which to act directly or indirectly on events. On the one hand an immense fortune, amount of money after the retirement of oil and gas on the other hand Al Jazeera television channel developed since 1 November 1996, which became one of the largest networks of communication, looked throughout the Arab world. This chain often covers live events with a very pronounced bias and far from any "journalistic objectivity" and did not hesitate to resort to lies, faked reports like this has happened several times between other during the events in Libya. Al Jazeera has strengthened the position of Qatar in the Arab world and globally globally, "Al Jazeera is a Qatar made." The third weapon Qatar less known than the previous project is entitled "Nahda", which means rebirth in Arabic. A sort of think tank that emits Qatari ideas and develop a strategy to change the Arab world. This project provides a practical tool, "Academy of change" based in London which is a sort of training center for Arab youth where we learn to use the tools, techniques manifestation as fallback self-defense and the development of claims, slogans, etc.. A tacit agreement between Qatar and the Muslim Brotherhood group was signed in 1999, which states that the organization was officially dissolved in Qatar and ceases all activity in that country. However, some of its members are involved in projects in other countries Qatar, Qatar providing material and financial assistance and unlimited access to Al Jazeera. Qatar became the refuge and shelter of many personalities of the Muslim Brotherhood. "The Academy of Change" is headed by a close Muslim Brotherhood, Hisham Morsi, a pediatrician Egyptian Youssef Garadawi son, it is one of the most important figures of the Islamist propaganda, head of the International Union Islamist He hosts a show on Al Jazeera on Sharia. As the project "Nahda", it was designed and is managed by Jasim Sultan, a former Muslim Brotherhood Qatar. Qatar exploits the Muslim Brotherhood in its external relations with other Arab countries, to carry out these projects hegemony and infiltration of Arab societies. Qatari efforts to train activists in close collaboration with the U.S. are to organize seminars and meetings for young people of all Arab countries. November 20, 2008 in New York held the coordination of youth movements followed by several other peaks, Mexico City in 2009 and London in 2010. Members of the April 6 movement were present during these meetings funded by Google, Face Book, You Tube, MTV, ... in the presence of these companies and members of the U.S. administration. Do not forget that Google and Twitter have offered free telephone lines during the first days of the Egyptian revolution. Do not forget that Wael Ganim, a computer engineer, co-founder in 2012 of the "we are all Khaled Said," named by Time magazine as the Man of the Year and won the Kennedy is also responsible to Google for marketing its products in the Middle East and North Africa. It is on this page that launched on January 14 to protest the appeal of 25 January 2011. The other administrator page Abderrahman Mansour less publicized, more discreet, it is he who chooses the 25 January and is still a member of the Muslim Brotherhood.

A provisional dictator The "revolution" Egyptian (no more than other "revolutions") is the work of the CIA or the dark forces behind a black curtain, it is the opposite because they do not want, it is the work of the Egyptian-ing. These are political forces, businessmen in Egypt but also in France, the USA, Qatar and elsewhere who do not want this "revolution" to run its course and do everything that the capitalist system remains in the condition. The Muslim Brotherhood, supported by the USA via Qatar and Turkey, are part of the force that is trying to control the situation.

Asked about the nature of relations Egyptian-Qatari Mohammed Jawdat, economic adviser to the Muslim Brotherhood party, the Party for Freedom and Justice, responded that these relations were excellent and "Egypt, Qatar, Turkey , Tunisia and Syria were soon axis of the utmost importance in the Arab region. " Egypt relies heavily on economic aid from Qatar, especially in the form of loans and investment projects valued at more than $ 18 billion. Some Gulf countries are beginning to have doubts about the intentions of this axis denounced by King Abdullah of Jordan expressing his fears that Turkey implemented to establish an Islamist regime in Syria, where the need for him to form an axis Jordan Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. The formation of these two blocks may fear future confrontations and highlights the role played by the Muslim Brotherhood, with the support of the West.

Mahmoud Morsy, the Egyptian president, has won the title of pharaoh, demigod or provisional dictator after his attempted coup November 15, 2012 to enact a constitutional decree which concentrates all power in the hands and immunized presidential decisions against any claim or legal and judicial criticism. And at the same time, he dismisses the prosecutor and ordered the reopening of the trial of the former Mubarak regime, that to please the people and to swallow the bitter pill of full powers it is granted. This coup is to neutralize the judiciary is one of the weapons of the political class to control the Egyptian state, with the Army. It also serves to accelerate the planned vote on the constitution December 15, 2012 because there's a problem with the board constituting drafting the constitution which is the subject of a dispute over its legality. Obviously this legal battle and political concerns that politicians and political parties in terms of population, the expected reforms on wages, housing, health, etc.. and does not participate in this little war elites. However, events are held at the call of the decree opponents and Islamists also took to the streets to defend their president, clashes were seven dead and hundreds injured. Morsy eventually drop his decree but not the date of the referendum on the constitution on December 9 he gave all powers to the army to clear the streets of all manifestation. This episode clearly shows the willingness of Morsy, wanting to control everything, and his party, which at the beginning of the "revolution" after their electoral success, swore not to present presidential candidate not to focus legislative powers and executive in the same hands, until the army which was believed at the time! Islamists are not inevitable, nor in Egypt or elsewhere, if they come to power today thanks to their opportunism and organizational capacity under authoritarian regimes, because they also have forums and places weekly meeting and propaganda are thousands of mosques, a large annual international meeting in Mecca with more than 3 million people this summer 2012 and a favorable geopolitical context. But it is the practice of power that will be their loss when the people see that change leaders without changing the nature of the system does nothing to improve the conditions of life, on the contrary!

Saoud Salem OCL / Toulouse, December 2012
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