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(en) Portugal, AcÃÃo Directa #2 - Society against the State (pt) [machine translation]

Date Mon, 28 Jan 2013 12:16:48 +0200


In primitive society, essentially egalitarian society, men are masters of their activity, lords of movement of products of this activity: they act only for themselves
own, since the law of exchange of goods only mediates the direct relationship of man with his product. --- Everything disarticulates therefore when the production activity moves away from its initial goal, when instead of producing only for themselves random, primitive man also produces for others, without Pierrsem exchange and reciprocity. Only then will we can talk about work: when the rule egalitarian exchange ceases to be the "code civil" society, where production activity is aimed at meeting the needs of others, when the rule of exchange is replaced by terror debt. Indeed is exactly there that fits the difference between the wild Amazonian Indians and the Inca empire.

The first produces, in short, to live, while the second works, over and over, to cause others to live - those who do not work, tell you who: meets and pay what we owe, it is imperative that you eternally Saldes debt that contraÃste us.

When, in primitive society, the economic field is allowed to identify as separate and defined, when the production activity becomes alienated labor, tax and counted by those who will take advantage of the fruits of that work, is a sign that the company no longer is primitive, became a society divided into rulers and ruled, masters and subjects in, and that left to exorcise what is destined to kill her: the power and respect to power. The main division of society, one that underpins all others, no doubt including the division of labor, is the new vertical arrangement between the base and summit is the big cut between holders of political power, whether military or religious and submitted to this
strength. The political relationship of power precedes and underlies the economic relationship of exploitation. Before being economic, political alienation is the power before work,
is a derivation of economic policy, the emergence of the state determines the appearance-
tion of classes. (...)

The real revolution in historiated proto-humanity, not the Neolithic, umavez she may well leave intactaa old social organization, but the revo-cation policy: is this mysterious apparition, irreversible, fatal for societies pri-mitivas, we know under the name of State. And if there is a desire to conserve the Marxist concepts of infrastructure and superstructure, then you may need to recognize that infrastructure is the political and economic superstructure is. Only a structural upheaval, can transform abysmal, destroying it as such primitive society: what stirs in her womb or from the outside, that whose absence defines this same society, the authority of the hierarchy, power relations, the domination of men, the state. It would be futile to seek its origin in a hypothetical change in the relations of production in primitive society, modification, slowly dividing society into rich and poor, exploiters and exploited, lead mechanically to instauraeloÃÃo of an organ of political power of the former over the second, the emergence of the state.

Hypothetical, this modification of the economic base is still
more impossible. For that, in a given society, the regime
production turns towards a higher intensity
Work aimed at increased production of
goods, is necessary or that men wish that society
this transformation of their traditional way of life, or even
not wanting to, they are forced by an external violence. In the second
If nothing comes from society itself, which suffers the aggression of an external force
the benefit of which the production system will modify itself: work and produce more
to meet the needs of the new masters of power. The political oppression
determines flame allows exploration.

But the evocation of such a "staging"
serves no purpose, since it puts
an external source, contingent, immediate,
state violence, not the slow realization
domestic conditions, socioeconomic,
its appearance. The state, they say, is the
instrument which enables the ruling class
exercise its violent domination over
the dominated classes. Whatever. So that
there is the emergence of the state, it is necessary
therefore there is beforehand, the
division of society into classes
antagonistic interconnected by links
exploration. Therefore, the structure
division of society into classes should
precede the emergence of the state machine.

Let us note in passing the fragility
this purely instrumental conception
State. If society is organized by
able to exploit the oppressors oppress
of, because this is the ability to impose
alienation rests on the use of force, this
is, on what does the substance itself
State's "monopoly of violence
legitimate physical. "What needs answer
then the existence of a state,
once the essence is violence
immanent to the division of society, and this
violence exist in advance
oppression by a social group
on others? He would be only the
useless organ function fulfilled
before and elsewhere.

Articulating the emergence of the state machine
with the transformation of the social structure
leads only to roll back problem
this appearance. It is then necessary
ask why we produce, within
a primitive society, i.e., a
Non-divided society, the new division
men into rulers and ruled?
What is the biggest driver of this transformation
that would culminate in the installation
State? Its emergency
sanction the legitimacy of
private property that would
previously appeared and
State would be the representative and the
protective of the owners?

Very well. But why have arisen private property
a type of society that ignores, for refusal,
property? Why some wished to proclaim a day: ie
mine, and like others who have left to settle down so the germ of what
primitive society ignores, authority, oppression, the state? What is known today
primitive societies do not allow us to continue to seek the origin of the political economic level. It is this soil that the roots of the family tree
State. Nothing exists in the economic operation of a primitive society,
a stateless society, allowing the introduction of the difference between more
rich and poor, because then nobody has the strange desire to own, seem
more than your neighbor.
The capacity equal among all, to satisfy material needs, and exchange of goods and services that consistently prevents the accumulation of private property, simply become impossible the emergence of such a desire, the desire to possess what is actually desire
power. Primitive society, the first society of abundance, leaves no room for the overabundance of desire.

Primitive societies are societies without state because, in them, the state is
impossible. And though all civilized peoples were first wild: the
that made the state ceased to be impossible? Why are the people left
be wild? What a great event that allowed the revolution
Despot of the emergence of the figure, one who commands those who obey? Whence
comes political power? Mystery, perhaps temporary, of origin. (...)

(...) What does that mean? The prophets,
armed only his words, could
determine a "mobilization" of the Indians,
could accomplish this impossible thing in
primitive society: unify migration
religious diversity of multiple tribes.
They were able to perform, at a stroke,
the "program" Chiefs! Trap
the story? Fatality that despite everything
devotes itself to the primitive society
dependence? It is not known. But they had
much more power than what the
held the 2nd. So maybe it
must rectify the idea of ââthe word as
opposed to violence. If the head is wild
Thanks to a duty to innocent word,
primitive society can also
evidently in certain conditions,
go back to listening to another
word, forgetting that word
is said as a command: is the word
prophetic. In the discourse of the prophets lies
perhaps in germ's speech
power, and in the guise exalted
conductor men
that affirms the desire of the other,
maybe if disguises already
the silent figure of Despot.

Prophetic word, power
word: it would place the original
power, the beginning of the State in Word?
Prophets conquerors of souls before
they are masters of men? Maybe.
But even experience extreme
prophecy (no doubt because society
Tupi-Guarani had reached, for reasons
demographic or other extreme limits
that determine how a society
primitive society), which the savages
show us is the ongoing effort to
prevent the chiefs and the chiefs being
refusal of unification, is the work of
conjuration of a state. The history of
People who have a history is, it is said, the
history of class struggle. The history of
people without history is, it is said to be with the
least as much truth, the story of their struggle
against the state.

Edition of the book:
http://www.arteeanarquia.xpg.com.br/
a_sociedade_contra_o_estado_pierre_clastres.htm
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