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(en) Brazil, Anarkio.net: Colony Cecilia A-Info-January 16, 2013) (pt) [machine translation]

Date Sat, 12 Jan 2013 16:57:46 +0200


The Colony Cecilia was an experience of Italian anarchist Giovanni Rossi, in 1890 in the state of Paraná. ---- Giovanni Rossi was a member of the First International (becomes a member in 1873) and since its accession, retained access the project of forming a colony experimental based on principles of self-management of their economy, political freedom and full participants. In his libertarian media initiative was not well seen and criticized this character's struggle to escape the image of a colony did. --- Cecilia The Colony was not the first colony coordinated by Rossi, formerly in Italy itself, some developed, the best known being of the Cittadella, in the village of Stagno Lombardo (northern Italy) and is abandoned in 1889. But this did not detract from Rossi hand to such an initiative.

After the long boat ride, the Italian pioneers landed in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and change the decision to go to Port Alegre. Iran to Paraná, by agreement with the government (read more about below). In early April, he and his fellow Evangelist Benedetti, camping in the region that would be the Colony, near the town of Palmeira (18 km.)

There is no official confirmation of a treaty between the Emperor and Giovanni Rossi regarding donation of land therefore is an assertion without historical support, the fact is that he received the recent republican government, granting some land with the agreement that in 5 years the pay, thus transferring the colony the right of possession, it did not. At the beginning, around 16 people, only 1 woman is starting work on land, "without rules or bosses."

They prepare the ground and build barracks and depots of equipment and supplies, as well as enclosures for animals recently acquired. Everything runs well and at the end of 1890, Rossi leaves for Italy with the aim of getting more volunteers for the project. These come in successive waves, arriving at approximately 200 people in May 1891 (see Table population in the book). The structure of the colony does not support the recent large increase, thus giving rise to several problems. Lack space in the accommodation and food shortages there. In such an emergency situation, form a group of volunteers to work on the roads of the Government. Another alternative was used to obtain credit with traders in Palmeira (pegged at work on the roads). However, the community remains (brick production, increased vegetable garden, expansion of housing etc).

Nevertheless, the increased population of the colony and state of generalized poverty, generates the participants, many of whom had no contact with the international labor movement or knew the strands of socialism, competitiveness and a strong egotism settle in many (wins cooperativity survival in the group). In this way, the model settles parliamentary and political dictatorship of some families, corrupting libertarian principles of self-management and community / social freedom.

With a fully unstructured environment, many families withdraw from the colony, going to Curitiba. In June 1891, remained in the colony, seven families in dispute. In the same month, try the front seven young, restructure the colony into molds libertarians (full self-government and freedom). This form takes about 4 months, try about 30 people in the colony. For this period Rossi returns to the colony, as it is the bridge between the colony and the world proletarian writing and presenting the colony to the world, calling for volunteers.

reaches the end of 1891 two groups of families, and the population of the colony reaches approximately 100 people. Although a reinvigorated community, not much alleviates the situation of competitiveness and rivalry, and even create an informal family corporation (comparison of who works and who does not work). Some families seek to establish whether the colony. As it appeared, the situation had stagnated in the colony causing discontent and forcing the departure of many of the colony. In April 1892, the population decrease is too large, no more than 40 people in the community. Rossi asks Cappellaro then go to Italy, to call for new volunteers colony.

During this period, some former participants (Gattai are in the middle) of the colony are arrested for burglary, contributing to a negative image of the community (until then was good and regular in the vicinity of the colony). After this incident, there has been a deterioration in the social relations of the colony and Brazilian society around them, and the governor of Paraná asks severe observation of the colony. The only benefit that the local press, which seeks to disassociate the image of criminality of former members of the colony to colony itself, this support while important, is very small near the massive campaign against "notorious colony."

At the end of 1892, comes a new wave of families to the colony, bringing the population to number about 80 people. The previous problems, however, remains the authoritarianism of some families stifle the libertarian ardor of new families arriving. In 1893, there were as previously outputs families, dissatisfied with the authoritarian behavior of a few. During estimated 50 people in the colony. After 3 years of experience of the colony, is presented to the press a general international anarchist colony. Rossi, being sincere with his perseverance diminished, presents critical reflections on the colony, highlighting the legacies that bourgeois are not abandoned in the community (envy, gluttony, authoritarianism, intolerance etc). In the sexual aspect, Rossi presents a case of a love triangle consented, by the husband, his wife for another. Jealousy and the difficulty of dealing with the situation are presented by Rossi. The lack of companions in the colony is a negative aspect that makes the moral fall. The idea of free love (means female polygamy) is not well accepted within the community, the conservative and traditional concepts are still very present in the inhabitants of the colony.

colony The end is marked by two factors: The Federalist Revolution of 1893 (Maragatos and woodpeckers). The former are federalists, decentralization and autonomy of the states while the latter, Republicans want a strong government and central. The settlers adhere to cecilianos Maragatos. This promotes adherence to federalist cause retaliation from the Brazilian government confiscating and selling the lands of the colony. The support is not the cause, but the authoritarian attitude of the government (government officials require payment of taxes and break working tools and housing colony.)

There is a factor specific to the end of the colony, but several that stood out along of his journey, and the last date of the colony would be in April 1894, when the last families leave the colony and disperse throughout the country.
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This text was produced in 1998 for the Study Circle Dona Tina
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