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(en) Info-16 - January 2013 - Understanding especifismo, and related plataformismo (pt) [machine translation]

Date Wed, 09 Jan 2013 11:42:28 +0200


The especifismo or plataformismo (due to the influence of the Organisational Platform of the Delo Truda Russian exiles) depending on the region, is a conception of anarchist organization. At least thus define. What is not taken into account, or purposely omits is that todxs xs anarchists seek to organize, because they attack the government and the States, do not deny the importance of an organization of equals in rights and duties without direct bureaucratic ado. There is a common mistake and it is enjoying some even say that "anarchists", that when talking about anarchism, are talking of liberalism and its radical denial of any organization that leads to a superficial and selfish debauchery, very rebellious, little revolutionary.

The term is used especifismo and was broadcast by the Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAU), with which he refers to the current anarchist who historically defended the need for specific anarchist organization. That means, at least in a practical sense, the formation of a core of militants and formadxs motivadxs by anarchism and who can act in different ways without losing reference anarchist. Consider the following: There are currently many social movements, each with its own characteristics and all equally important for the emancipatory struggle, if well designed. In each, there are various types of activists of political parties, NGOs, different sectors of society, with their own perspectives on the world, which can vary from one extreme to another, making a space for social movements and ideological dispute always prevails aquelxs that have greater influence by printing more or less ability to fight or just direct actions reformists and placebos.
In this environment how we act? One possible answer is to have united groups (specifically anarchist, hence especifismo) who can participate, and if they can influence various social movements for emancipation. That's how especifismo acts as a group of militant anarchists in all social movements and organizations that may have some form of intervention and perhaps be the most influential proposal that environment, the current "organizational" of time.
Thus Especifismo presents the organization of the fight should take place on two distinct levels: the anarchist organization and the popular movements - which must form the basis of need and not restricted to a particular ideology, as in the case of anarchosyndicalism . This is a dangerous act and justification to make alliances with historical enemies (totalitarian leftist, Marxist and populist parties). If they are acting justify the need, can lead to denying fundamental principles of anarchism and create contradictions, how to form sheets to run for directorships and chairmanships of movements, partnering with authoritarian traitors (Marxist currents for example) seeking to expand influence in pursuit of power, even if the say "popular", it will not be framed within institutions to reform and control, whether a minority is a majority. Present the anarchosyndicalism as an ideology is not understanding the proper role of specific agent of anarchism, where revolutionary syndicalism is only part of the process of emancipation. What is missed here is that Especifismo tends and serves on reformist syndicalism, looking to affirm it as an option within a faction, plus a current within unionism legal, institutional.

Hence, if we take the principles of anarchosyndicalism presented by the International Workers Association, the AIT or IWA in English, we have a serious problem: AIT condemns such practice or tactic performed by especifismo. That is, in anarchosyndicalism, can not act, even in the form of a supposed "opposition" within organizations sanctioned by the States and employers, as in the case of the official unions in Brazil. But this goes beyond the International Anarchist Federations (IFA acronym) which is a sister of AIT also opposes this type of "partnership", even if it is an opposition on the part of any anarchist group. Hence we get a sense of why the difficulty of acting Especifists between organizations and other aspects and the ease with which has the especificistas in acting with political parties, avant-garde groups and governmental and legal institutions.
The organization model of especifismo has its foundations in classical anarchism, has been advocated by Mikhail Bakunin, Errico Malatesta, the Delo Truda Russian exiles, among others. Bakunin advocated such a model for the Alliance of Socialist Democracy, when in his role within the International Workingmen's Association (First International), Malatesta advocated similar positions in their formulation of the "anarchist party"; Delo Truda the similarly Platform Organization of the Libertarian Communists. Similar positions were advocated at different times and in different places by anarcho-communists who held an online "organicist" of anarchism, based on the organization and willingness of workers to promote social change through mass movements. In this case, it is important to stress that it is important to understand the historical conditions in which each of these ideas were developed, because if at first glance we see a certain similarity between them, to analyze them better, we realized that each was built upon and with particular purpose and that purpose is decontextualized, can be given any shape, at the whim of the interpreter.
Since the nineteenth century, other concepts have been incorporated into what today is understood as "especifismo", which is defended by a series of anarchist organizations in Brazil: the understanding of anarchism as an ideology and therefore a necessary connection with a political practice with goal of social transformation; organization as an indispensable element for the fight, the design of the specific anarchist organization as an active minority, the centrality of the class struggle and the priority in social work with the popular movements (social movements, trade unions, etc.. ); theoretical and ideological unity, the strategic and tactical unit, the decision-making process marked by the attempt at consensus and, failing that, by voting, and the emphasis on militant commitment.
The above explains itself because Especifismo causes so much distrust many aspects anarchists, and not as an active minority distrust? A centrality of the class struggle? A unit of all ... disciplining of a totalization, even called anarchist? This really creates a resistance to accept it as a fact of anarchist proposal and not a trend partidarizante within anarchism. The positive aspect, it really is that the organization, this is not unique to merit especifismo, anarchism can act clearly and objectively in any social movement, without submitting the impositions party, state, and legal reformer who also act in these movements. Away from the action of a supposed active minority, what you want and if it does, while anarchism is to bring light to the emancipatory knowledge of the action, without being prescriptive. The most crucial of all this is that one should develop the commitment and self-criticism so that the anarchist is not held hostage to a rigid discipline and a blind belief that militants may induce more experienced, as this would refer to non-anarchists and practices emancipatory, but rather, a proto-party institutional regulations.
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