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(en) Brazil, Group Policy Anarchist Studies and Training - Egrets Bar / MT - Course III Ideology, Theory, and Anarchism - Anarchist Organisation especifista of Mato Grosso (pt) [machine translation]
Tue, 25 Dec 2012 11:02:19 +0200
11 DECEMBER 2012 LEAVE A COMMENT ---- Hello everybody, we are already preparing for the
second meeting of the Group of Anarchist Studies and Training Policy. This second course
will be discussing the ongoing 3 of module I. ---- Once again we are counting on the
participation of people interested in knowing more about Anarchism. ---- A big hug! ----
Link to get the stuff: http://rusgalibertaria.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/modulo_01.pdf --
Event Link on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/events / 435656836489733 / Email ----
Swoop's Libertarian: firstname.lastname@example.org --- Not peleia who's dead! ---TRAINING
-- Organization Anarchist Libertarian Socialism (OASL) --- Anarchist Federation of Rio de
Janeiro (FARJ) ---- I ---- MODULE ANARCHIST IDEOLOGY ---- Course 1: What is Anarchism ---
Nicolas Walter. "What is Anarchism." ----- Errico Malatesta, "Anarchism and Anarchy."
Course 2: Social Anarchism ----
- FARJ. "Social Anarchism".
- Murray Bookchin. "Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism - Excerpts."
- Frank Mintz. "Social Anarchism - Excerpts."
Course 3: Ideology, Theory, and Anarchism
- FAU. "Huerta Grande".
- FAU. "What is Ideology?"
IDEOLOGY, THEORY AND ANARCHISM
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE THEORY
Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAU)
To understand what happens (the situation) is necessary to be able to think properly.
Think means properly sort and properly handle the data that is produced in quantity on
Thinking correctly is the precondition to properly analyze what happens in a country at a
given moment in history of this country or any other. This requires instruments.
These instruments are the concepts. To think consistency is a set of necessary
concepts coherently articulated. If you require a system of concepts, a theory.
No theory is likely to consider each particular problem only in isolation from viewpoints
that may be different in each case. Or on the basis of subjectivities, hunches,
The party can avoid serious errors because he thought himself from concepts that have a
significant degree of consistency. Also made serious mistakes by inadequate development of
his theoretical thinking as Organization.
To propose a program is necessary to know the reality of economic, political, ideological
our country. The same goes for formulating a political line sufficiently clear and
concrete. If little is known and there is no evil program and there will only be one line
very general, very difficult to accomplish in each place where the work party. If there is
a clear line and no concrete policy effective. The political party then runs the risk of
blur. The "voluntarism" becomes willingly do what is appearing. But not so particular
focuses on the events, based on his rough estimate. If it is determined by them and before
they act spontaneously.
No line for theoretical work, an Organization, however large, is confounded by
conditions or conditions that she not understand. The program assumes a political line, ie
the goals you want to achieve in each step. The program indicates that forces are
favorable, what are the enemies and who are the allies circumstantial. But to know that
you have to know deeply the reality of the country. Therefore, acquiring this knowledge is
now the priority.
And you need to know theory.
The party needs a clear scheme to be able to think coherently country and region
(Latin America) and the struggles of the international working class movement throughout
history. We have a leather effective to order the growing mass of data relating to our
economic reality, political and ideological. We need a method to treat these data. To see
what are the most important, what you need first and which later. In order to properly
manage our forces thus available for each work front. A conceptual scheme that allows one
to link with other things, following a systematic order, consistent and we serve what we
want to do as militancy party. That will bring us closer examples of working with these
other conceptual schemes that operate in other realities.
But this job of knowing our country that we do ourselves, because no one will do for us.
We will not invent theoretical schemes from scratch. We will not create a new theory in
all its terms. And it is so because of the general backwardness of our country and its
specialized agencies and our scarce availability to undertake this task.
We will then have to take the theory as we elaborating, analyzing it critically. We can
not accept any theory eyes closed, without criticism, like a dogma.
We want to study and think about the country and the region as revolutionaries. So between
the different elements that include current socialist trends, we will always elements that
best serve us for this: to think and analyze in a revolutionary country, region or other
regions and experiences.
We will not adopt a theory to put it into a "cartazinho fashion." To live repeating
"Quote" what others have said elsewhere, in another time, in respect of other quotes and
problems. The theory is not for that. To do this use the quacks.
The theory is an instrument, a tool, used to do a job, is to produce knowledge that we
need to produce. The first thing that interests us is to know our country.If we are not
used to produce new knowledge useful for political practice, the theory is useless,
becomes mere topic of lecture unproductive, sterile polemics ideologizante.
Who buys around a large and modern, rather than talking about is turning around, makes an
evil role, is a charlatan. Likewise those who may have one around and use it prefers
turning by hand, because it was so been done before ...
SOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEORY AND IDEOLOGY
It should point out some differences between what are usually called theory and ideology.
The theory points to the development of conceptual tools to think rigorously and deeply
know the reality. It is in this sense that we can speak of the theory as equivalent to
Ideology, in turn, is composed of elements of a non-scientific, that help to revive the
action, motivating it, based on circumstances, while having regard to the objective
conditions do not derive from it, in the strict sense. The ideology is conditioned by the
objective conditions, though not mechanically determined by them.
A thorough and rigorous analysis of a concrete situation in its real terms, rigorous,
objective, theoretical analysis is thus a character as scientific as possible. The
expression of motivations, the proposed goals, aspirations, ideals of goals, it belongs to
the realm of ideology.
The theory makes precise circunstancializa the constraints of political action: the
ideology motivates and propels it, setting it in its goals "ideals" and his style.
Between theory and ideology there is a close linkage, since these proposals are
intertwined and rely on the conclusions of the theoretical analysis. An ideology is much
more effective as an engine of political action, the more firmly rests on the acquisition
THE SCOPE OF WORK THEORY
Theoretical work is always work that sustains and builds on real processes, as happens in
historical reality. Undoubtedly, like work, is located entirely in the field of thought:
there are no concepts that are more real than others.
In this regard it is up scoring two basic propositions:
1 - The distinction between reality existing concrete, real processes, historical and gold
side thought processes, pointed to the knowledge and understanding of that reality. It is
necessary to say in other words, to say the difference between being and thinking, between
reality and knowledge as it is about what she may have.
2 - The primacy of being over thought, of knowledge about reality. Stated another
way, more importantly, weighs more as a determinant of the course of events that happens
in reality, than what about these facts one might think or know.
From these basic statements, it needs to perform certain notes the scope of theoretical
work, ie, the effort of knowledge guided by strict purposes of knowledge, scientific.
Theoretical work is always done from a particular feedstock. Not part of the actual
concrete reality itself, but that piece of information, data and ideas about this reality.
This primary material is treated in the process of theoretical work through some useful
concepts, certain instruments of thought. The product from this treatment is knowledge.
Put in other terms: there are only, properly speaking, real objects, concrete and singular
(certain historical situations, at certain times). The process of theoretical thinking has
finally meet them.
Sometimes the work of knowledge points to abstract objects that do not exist in reality,
that exist only in thought, but they are indispensable tools is a prerequisite to be able
to know the real objects (eg the concept of social class, etc.).. In the process of
knowledge production, therefore, becomes the raw material (superficial perception of
reality) into a product (knowledge rigorous, scientific, hers).
The term "scientific knowledge" must become accurate with regard to social reality.
Applied to this reality, alludes to his understanding strictly speaking, the closer
Can the reality as it is.
It is said that with the process knowledge of social reality, like all reality object of
study, is susceptible to a theoretical infinity. Just as physics, chemistry and other
sciences can endlessly deepen the knowledge of the realities that constitute their objects
of study, social science can deepen indefinitely knowledge of social reality. Therefore it
is inappropriate to expect a knowledge "finished" social reality to begin to act on it
trying to make it. Not least is inappropriate to try to transform it without knowing her
The rigorous, scientific, local reality of our social formation, only working on
conquering information, statistical data, etc.., By means of conceptual tools that provide
more abstract and constitute the theory, Through theoretical practice seeks to production
of these conceptual tools, more precise and more concrete, leading to the knowledge of the
specific reality of our country.
Only from a proper theoretical understanding, ie deep and scientific, can develop
ideological elements (aspirations, values, ideals, etc..) That constitute the appropriate
means for the transformation of social reality with such principles of coherence and
effectiveness in political practice.
POLICY AND PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE OF REALITY
An effective policy practice therefore requires knowledge of reality (theory), the
postulation harmonic her transformation of objective values ââ(ideology) and concrete
political means to achieve it (political practice). The three elements merge into a unit
that is a dialectical struggle for social transformation which party postulates.
Question is: should we expect a theoretical development just to get into acting? No. The
theoretical development is not an academic problem, not starting from scratch. Is based,
motivates and develops from the existence of ideological values, a political practice.
More or less correct, more or less erroneous, these elements exist historically before the
theory and motivate its development.
The class struggle existed long before its theoretical conceptualization. The struggle of
the exploited not wait to elaboration of theoretical work that gave her reason to break
out. His being, his existence was prior to his knowledge, the theoretical analysis of its
Therefore, from this evidence base is arising as the fundamental and priority actions,
political practice. Only from it, in its concrete existence, the conditions proved its
development, can reach up elaborate theoretical thought useful. Than an accumulation of
free abstract postulations with more or less internal logic and consistency, but without
consistency with the development of real processes. To theorize act effectively is essential.
We can dispense with the theory in our emergency practice? No. There may admit, a
political practice based only on ideological criteria, ie not or insufficiently
substantiated based on appropriate theoretical analyzes. This is usual in our midst.
Nobody can claim that there is, in our reality and still in the American region, a proper
theoretical analysis, a conceptual understanding enough, even less. This evidence is
extensive, on the other hand, the whole of reality. The theory is outlined in an early
development stage only. Despite this, for many decades if combat is fought. This evidence
should not lead to contempt of the fundamental importance of theoretical work.
To the question put before the answer then: the priority is to practice, but the
effectiveness of this condition lies in the most rigorous knowledge of reality.
In reality such as ours, with the social formation of our country, the theoretical
development has to leave, as everywhere, a set of theoretical concepts efficient,
operating on a mass the widest possible data, which constitutes the raw material of
The data itself, taken alone, without an adequate conceptual treatment, give no sense of
reality. Simply adorn and conceal the ideologies that they serve funcionalizam those data.
The abstract concepts in themselves, not fit a proper information base, they provide
neither the knowledge of realities.
The theoretical work in the field that develops in our country, usually fluctuates between
two extremes erroneous.
Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAU)
Every human action, in all its vast multiplicity of expressions, requires a
ideological foundation that sustains it as thought and action. The making of this
inexorable condition of man, does not escape the formulation of any political line, not
the processing of concrete political practice. Therefore, we must define the ideology that
behind every human act is located and this is understandable action. So that brings us to
the question forward. What is ideology?
Expressing ourselves in concrete terms, albeit totally accurate, we can ensure that
ideology is a conceptual framework that considers basically two purposes, we refer the
politician. On the one hand, the ideology indicates a target for political practice,
proposes a social model to be achieved. That is, it has a purpose runner. You can not
conceive of a revolutionary political practice without formulating a purpose. Thus, the
ideology organically form part, as such, all social totality.
Every movement that seeks to transform the world proposes a goal to achieve, which implies
a social model of ideal character: a social utopia, so to speak. Even those theories, such
as Marxism - insisted that the practice policy should be based on a detailed study of
reality, in the analysis of so-called objective conditions prevailing or actual - are
nonetheless formulate an objective. And when Marx and his followers sought to determine it
in its general features, they nevertheless constitute an ideal model expressed in abstract
terms and therefore utopian character.
We can affirm that socialism formula as utopian goals traits, to the extent that the
communist society of the future can only be provided in their most essential traits and
general, in what concerns its features. However, they are still formulated as goals. And
most importantly, this formulation aimed communist society, affects the character of the
process that fights should try to earnings. In other words, when dealing with the type of
society finalist for which we bow, we are implicitly conditioned the means we employ to
achieve them. Nobody can determine, seriously, as the ultimate goal, building a communist
society and to employ this method of action or a political practice that are themselves
ideological heritage of the bourgeoisie.
Moreover, the ideology meets a second essential purpose: to provide the
conceptual elements that allow thinking reality. An ideology is a system of
representations of images for ideas and concepts. And why not say, that also integrate
this system the myths. It is very important not to forget that thought is not influenced
by the concepts and that these instruments are as concrete as any other. Just as you need
a hammer to drive a nail, and he must be made, the concepts needed to think, and they must
be produced. We need conceptual tools to be able to think.
The history of human thought has been, and remains, a production process of conceptual
tools that have allowed the possibility of forming a scientific thought. So the work of
socialist theorists was invaluable, as elaborated and determined that they were used
concepts that allowed us to understand the workings of capitalist society, its
foundations, its contradictions, and predict what the future course of society.
The concepts have a historical existence and role within a given society.
Thanks to them, and by his influence, you can learn to really understand it and transform
it. It is vital, then, for the political activity of any revolutionary organization, not
only formulate a finalist social model towards which you must travel, but also experience
in the most thorough possible, the reality in which it operates and, based on this , make
your prediction for the future. Lack of some of these elements are falling into serious
contradiction between the political practice of the organization and the historical
process in which it operates. It incurring an error that can only result in the
inconsistency, the disintegration or the containment of revolutionary phenomenon. Errors
of this type are: thinking that the reality of Uruguay today admits the possibility of
returning to the past; assume that, through the institutions of the social system, it is
possible to achieve its transformation, or consider that there is possibility of
development within the boundaries capitalists, which allows overcoming the current
difficulties of a political, economic and social.
The political and organizational forms of revolutionary action must arise from an analysis
of reality and a forecast of the future. This analysis is processed through thought and
action in dialectical interaction. The system of representations and concepts (which has
an own logic and rigor), which investigates the why and the wherefore of social reality,
is what allows the review, and that, in turn, determines the concrete political action.
Returning to our first statement: You can not think or act without ideology, no human
conduct aideolÃgica; ideology is thought and action. Schematically, we could say that
ideology is a structure or system that allows concepts:
One. The formulation of an objective finalist (which should be explained as clearly as
2nd. A definite apprehension or comprehension of the reality in which we live, through
your profound and thorough analysis.
3rd. The forecast closely as possible the future of this reality, their processing what is
spontaneous, as deliberate. That is, in our case, ideology does not accept the character
of interested spectator and analytical conditions or spontaneous transformations of
reality, but forces us to think voluntarily, willfully, to your future ...
* Taken from Juan Mechoso. AcciÃn Directa Anarchist: una historia of FAU. Montevideo:
Scraps, s / d, p. 223-224.
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