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(en) France, Alternative Libertair November 2012 (#222) - Black Gold Nigeria: The Total (fr) [machine translation]
Mon, 26 Nov 2012 10:18:35 +0200
Fela Kuti [ 1 ] sang in pidgin english "Dey do dem whole," Africa is total. All the evils
of capitalism go there and enjoy political power itself in the pay of oil and gas in the
West. [ 2 ] ---- Former "slave coast", Nigeria becomes the prey of greed British in 1841.
Until the Biafran War (1967-70), it is England which is the spearhead of Western interests
in the Niger Delta. ---- Some three million deaths and five million refugees later, the
generous donor money and weapons (France, UK, USA) of both sides can share the oil wealth,
the "light sweet crude oil" [ 3 ] of delta - the best oil in the world. It opens the way
(thank you Mr. Kouchner) the new equation humanitarian war + = neocolonialism. ---- The
story is always the same: desperate trial against Shell (or Repsoil or Total or Exxon ...)
to the International Court in The Hague, political assassinations mafia killings by the
What do they complain? Discharge into the delta equivalent of the Amoco Cadiz each year,
the death of all living men, animals and plants, flares that release into the atmosphere
tons of gas causing chronic respiratory diseases, representing 15% of global greenhouse.
Shell is hell
They complain about not being able to live in their own countries, to multiply litigation,
the demos, news. Tankers promise schools, compensation, site remediation, gas collection
... Nothing has ever been done.
In 1990, the Ogoni ethnic group is conducting a non-violent struggle to assert their
rights to survival. Around the iconic character of Ken Saro-Wiwa, it draws even the first
declaration of rights on African soil, largely centered around the ecological question.
This movement, Mosop [ 4 ], will demand $ 10 billion in compensation from Shell, and put
300,000 people in the street, dwindling oil revenues in the region. The power finally
understood the message: dozens dead, thirty villages destroyed, execution of eight other
leading comrades in 1995.
Delta will burn. Ijaw, the other major ethnic group in the region, leading a guerrilla
terribly effective against dividing by two oil production in recent years.
Delta children, they hit anywhere, and dramatically. Covered with paintings and amulets,
mystics, but also imbued with a real political consciousness, multiple groups living in
the delta will create an "umbrella organization" Mend [ 5 ]. He wants the emancipation of
the delta, aiming at a federalist form (fuzzy) organization. If the strategy is unified
tactics remains independent: unlike the IRA or ETA for example, he refuses to have a
voice, a branch organization.
In 2009, MEND lay down arms and accept amnesty. This is down from 2010, as exactions, land
grabbing, private militias and government continue to kill, just as nature continues to be
ravaged (60% of the land is unsuitable for cultivation).
In ambush, masters and European Americans make and unmake governments of Nigeria, the
country of all records of poverty, crime and environmental destruction. There has been
talk of Marines lend to President Goodluck Jonathan caught resurgence of armed struggle
and Muslim rebellion in the north. Meanwhile, fishermen have beautiful delta away from the
coast, nets do not back funds contaminated.
Cuervo AL 95/78
[ 1 ] Grand Nigerian musician and activist
[ 2 ] Much of this section is based on: The black gold of Nigeria Xavier Montonya, ed Agone.
[ 3 ] Crude oil, light and soft, containing few impurities, easy to refine. Nigeria is the
[ 4 ] The MOSOP: Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People the
[ 5 ] MEND: Movement of the Emancipation of Niger Delta
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