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(en) France, Alternative Libertair #220 - Marine pollution: Stop walking disaster + Dico anticapitalist: What syndicalism? (fr) [machine translation]

Date Sun, 11 Nov 2012 15:24:08 +0200


Marine pollution: Stop walking disaster ---- Most coastal or surface is threatened by human activities. Pollution from activities on land, transport and oil spills, global warming and overfishing combine to degrade massively oceans. ---- According to UNEP [ 1 ], about 80% of marine pollution resulting from toxic substances spilled on land, whether of industrial origin (hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides), agriculture (fertilizers, pesticides) pollutants (water treatment waste and landfills). Nitrates and phosphates, used extensively by intensive agriculture or sewage treatment plants, leading to the proliferation of green algae. This is a prime example of the local creation of "dead zones" where most marine organisms disappear. In 2004, the UN reported more than a hundred dead zones in bays, estuaries downstream and seas.

This phenomenon continues to grow, now reaches four hundred coastal nearly 245,000 km2 of ocean pollution that kills this all plants and animals living in the seabed. These phenomena are amplified by the massive releases of CO2 in the atmosphere, resulting mechanically by acidification of the oceans and affect planktonic organisms at the base of the food chain with the cascading effects that can be imagined.

Overfishing deadly

And entire ecosystems, such as coral reefs are threatened by the consequences of human activity. If they cover only 0.2% of the ocean floor, they collect about 25% of marine species. Their possible disappearance - including those in the Caribbean - has been the subject of a scientific report presented by UNESCO on 28 January 2008. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an increase in average global temperature of 2 ° C would lead to widespread death of corals worldwide. The other big issue is overfishing. The United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture (FAO) estimates that 77% the proportion of fish species impacted to varying degrees: 8% would be exhausted, 17% and 52% overexploited exploited to their fullest. Capacity of fish catches reached levels totally incompatible with the productivity of the oceans. Fish catches had already reached a maximum of 100 million tonnes in 2000. And although the fishing capacity are increasing, production has stagnated since the 1990s. Industrial vessels cover long distances and fishing deep with very sophisticated technical means. The seabed is devastated by weighted nets that capture more benthic life possible [ 2 ], each year affecting an area of seabed twice that of the continental United States!

Scarcity

Since 1950, industrial fisheries down south at the rate of depletion of stocks, ie 0.8 ° per year. Only the most heavily subsidized fleets remain competitive, creating a cleavage increasingly important with poor countries. Ten to fifteen percent of the global ocean is directly affected by overfishing, according to the UN, but with impacts that affect or will affect at least three quarters of the main fishing areas in the world. The causes of the disaster in motion are known as climate change, pollution and overfishing. The depletion of fish stocks [ 3 ] and the significant number of people dependent on these can only lead to economic, social and political. Surpassing the immediate interests of the capitalist minority who raided these resources is a necessary condition for an early solution which we will detail the aspects in the next issue.

Jacques Dubart (AL Agen)

[ 1 ] UNEP: United Nations Environment http://www.unep.org/french/

[ 2 ] The benthos is all aquatic organisms near the bottom of the seas and oceans, lakes and rivers.

[ 3 ] Living resources (flora and fauna) of marine or freshwater aquatic (freshwater) used by man (fishing, aquaculture).

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Dico anticapitalist: What syndicalism?

It may seem surprising today to many workers and workers to attach the term union than revolution. Is that revolutionary syndicalism no longer has the audience he could have and often the unions merely accompany employee-es in their daily struggles to defend without a radical break with the capitalist society by revolution.

What we must realize is that unionism is not always prudhommales elections, small arrangements in EC signatures agreements soft (remember the CFDT in 2003) calls to resume strike after not having won anything, calls for a strike framed one day, from time to time to show that we are not happy ... Anyway, so that many activists and revolutionary activists are pulling their hair. There are still a form of unionism which favors direct action, fighting not only to ensure that workers and workers rights, but also to overthrow the existing system and build a new society. As for the other currents of revolutionary thought that we cover in this dictionary, it is not a question of making a comprehensive history of trade unionism-revolutionary prehistory to the present day, it would take too long, and above all it would bring not much. We just have to remember that this form of unionism today minority was until the year 1914 or 1930 in some cases, a current major trade union action in many countries. Thus, the claims to the French CGT trade union-revolutionary (or SR for short) until the First World War, it continued after the CGT-SR (the forerunner of the National Confederation of Labour present French). Argentina is the Fora (at least until its congress in 1915), in Italy Usi, the Netherlands Nas, the CNT in Spain, the IWW in North America, is demanding a trade union direct action, which should help workers to improve their working conditions, but also help in the organization of the future society. Another feature, the SR rejects any political affiliation and considers that trade unionism is sufficient in itself to bring the revolutionary project. The influence of the Charter of Amiens is paramount to understand this relationship to political organizations [ 1 ].

Seriously affected by the First World War (which undermines internationalism) and the birth of the various communist parties (which calls into question the independence of association), the revolutionary syndicalist movement was gradually weakened, even if its influence can still be important in some areas. Although the SR does not claim specifically anarchism and one should not confuse this with the current anarcho-syndicalism, many anarchists or anarchist communists are in this vision of unionism direct action, emancipatory and horizontal.

[ 1 ] On the Charter of Amiens see Libertarian Alternative No. 151, May 2006
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