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(en) Brazil, For 130 years, on July 22, 1822, JosÃ Oiticica was born
Wed, 01 Aug 2012 13:45:51 +0300
It is with great happiness that we remember this valuable militant anarchist. For us,
memory is a indispensable ally in the daily struggles, and it is through it that the
fellows of yesterday still walking shoulder to shoulder with us today. In this sense,
Here we publish a biography of, JosÃ Oiticica who took text in May 2007 in EmecÃ
information, the Center for Research Marques da Costa. ---- Viva anarchism organized! FARJ
http://www.farj.org/ ---- OITICICA JOSEPH - AN EXISTENCE BY DIRECT ACTION ---- "He is
gone," said the title text on the first page of the anarchist Action Direct (a) five
decades ago, in July 1957. The "he" who did references was Professor JosÃ Oiticica, a
leading militant in the movement River and unusual talent in various areas of human
knowledge, starting with the Portuguese language that was professor at the Colegio Pedro
II provided that there joined by tender in 1916, despite providing evidence showing errors
JosÃ Rodrigues Leite and Oiticica had died suddenly of a heart attack at 30
June 1957. His birth had occurred on July 22, 1882 Oliveira,
Minas Gerais, the fourth son of former Senator and a constituent republic. To six
year was expelled from the Archdiocese of St. Joseph Seminary in Petropolis for having
rebelled against the "cake" used by a priest master (2). The following was
enrolled in college Paula Freitas in Tijuca where he met the future
writer, and anarchist Lima Barreto (1881-1922) (3). At 15 Oiticica
entered the Polytechnic School of Design course to follow. Reading books
sociology, however, leads him to law school in Recife and Rio graduate,
It was soon disillusioned with the legal means to resolve the issues large and small
social. Their activities are then returned to education. In 1905, the year of his
marriage to her cousin Frances Bouillon, founded the College with this Latin American
in Rio, the experiment fails, as the couple admitted many students lacking
financial resource. After driving for two years a public school in Santa
Catherine, Oiticica back to Rio in 1911 debut in literature, and was already a journalist
It is in 1911, after so many disappointments with religion, law, education and
State JosÃ Oiticica will take a decisive step in your life. After hearing a
his relatives that his ideas of social transformation were "pure anarchism," Oiticica
finds itself ideologically anarchist. The anarchist journal Social War, edited
Rio draws attention in its issue of August 14, 1912 (4) for a course
League Anticlerical sociology at the Rio de Janeiro, taught by Oiticica. And it is
still in an anti-clerical newspaper, The Lantern, SP, which publishes an article Oiticica
about the shooting of Ferrer in October 1912. This year also sees engaging
actively in the revolutionary syndicalist movement.
Important fact in the biography of Oiticica at this stage was its participation in
The Anarchist Life magazine, published in the period 1914-1915 in Rio Appointed professor
of Portuguese Pedro II of the college after a hard contest, setting out the errors of
components of the surveyed banks, Oiticica decrease did not leave his mind
depending on the rebel position. In 1918 Rui Barbosa pronounced conference in theater
Rio for electoral purposes, promising small benefits to the workers, including
eight days of rest for women after childbirth. Oiticica wrote article "
caused excitement in all political and social, as so demonstrated,
eloquent than the famous tribune Bahia absolutely unaware of the tragic life
workers and the real solution to their serious problems. "(5) Still
April 19 of that year the audacity to Oiticica would go further to
published in the newspaper EmecÃ Street an open letter to the almighty police chief
Distrito Federal, which had closed the Workers' Federation. Oiticica argued that
anarchist militants were jailed or persecuted persons of high ethical condition,
unlike the junk that was formed the framework of police officers,
especially the "secret" and informants responsible for political repression.
The November 18, 1918 it is stated in Rio and neighboring towns a general strike
insurrectionary. Workers clash with the army and police. Oiticica and
other defendants were arrested by an army officer to be promoters of a
attempted insurrection. Exiled to Alagoas, Oiticica there is propaganda among
fishermen, telling them by candlelight (6). There also an acquaintance with
young Octavius ââBrandÃo, then anarchist, who wrote the foreword for the book
Channels and Ponds, that is first affirmed the existence of oil in
Brazil. Years later, in the PCB, send BrandÃo remove the preface of Oiticica
a second edition. Back in Rio Oiticica was involved in the project will see the newspaper
anarchist Spartacus, along with Astrojildo Pereira, within a few years
also his ideological adversary. The following year the touch instead of contributing to the
Voice of the People's Daily, organ of the Workers Federation of Rio de Janeiro in
In 1922 serious split in the labor movement is caused by the foundation of the PCB. In
the 1920s the military itself and the middle classes are discontent
for the domain of the oligarchies of the old republic .. It is the revolt of 1922 in Fort
Copacabana and July 5, 1924 explodes in Sao Paulo revolt of the troops
commanded by General Isidoro. The government of Artur Bernardes decrees
state of siege and Oiticica is stuck in the classroom Pedro II, passing during
seven months to sojourn for several prisons, or the police headquarters, island
Rasa and the island of Flores. On leaving prison Oiticica editing with Antonio Bernardo
Canellas the underground newspaper on July 5 (7).
The controversy rages between anarchists and communists, and becomes more dramatic
killed when the cobbler anarchist Antonino Dominguez in the Union of Graphs
Rua Frei Mug in 1928, by shots fired by militants from the PCB. The members
the "Cheka" PC aimed specifically Oiticica and other anarchists (8). In 1937
Oitiica is arrested again, this time by the police of the "Estado Novo". In 1946
restarts with fellow editor of the newspaper Direct Action in Rio (there was a
first phase 1928-1929). Having died in 1957, his name was given in years
Next by anarchists River Studies Center to a closed dictatorship
in 1969 Military.
The intense life of the wise and rebellious in Oiticica is the teaching which he formulated
by declaring that "only direct action shatters thrones, threatens tyranny, convulse worlds.
Only she mainly teaches and strengthens the people robbed in his fight against ancient
enslaving forces. "
1. Direct Action No 119, Year 11, 1st page, in July 1957. The newspaper circulated in the RJ
1946 to 1959.
2. See the preface of Roberto Neves for the collection of articles by Oiticica Action
Direct, Publisher Germinal, RJ, 1970.
3. Article by JosÃ Oiticica m Street, quoted by Francisco de Assis Barbosa's Life
Lima Barreto, Jose Olimpio, RJ, 1952.
4. Social War, RJ, 14/08/1911.
5. Testimony of Manuel Peres anarchist Direct Action in July 1957.
6. View Article Well Done Direct Action in the collection of Germinal.
7. View of Roberto Neves, preface to the collection of Direct Action Germinal.
8. See report on developments in the Union of Graphics in 1928 by Renato
Ramos informative Libera in number 81, February 1998.
* Published EmecÃ, year III, number 06, May 2007.
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