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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #287 - Ideas: The company facing the industry ! (fr, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Sat, 27 Oct 2018 09:24:35 +0300

We begin here a series of articles of reflection on the industry in the society: on what conditions an industry could be integrated within an ecological society, serving the needs of the population and respecting the imperatives of the world alive ? This first article aims to recall how the consequences of pollution were managed before the industrial revolution. ---- A pollutant, even if it is not identified as such, is an agent of external origin to an ecosystem that has negative impacts on all or part of an ecosystem [1]. The regularization of polluting processes is an ancient history within human societies. The turn of the French revolution, which has brought the capitalist class to power, will however return full foot in the era of pollution as the least harm related to the good development of the interests of the state. But before that ?

The pollution begins with prehistory, with fire control: " The soot found on the ceiling of prehistoric caves is a clear proof that the homes caused a high level of pollution due to insufficient ventilation. " [2]The metallurgy of the bronze age and the age of the iron, a turning point in the pollution of the external environment. The coring of the Greenland glaciers revealed an increase in the pollution associated with the metallurgy of the Greeks, Romans and Chinese [3]. But at that time, pollution was comparatively low, and had no significant environmental impact at the global level.

Urban concentrations have also been a major source of pollution throughout our history. The cities concentrated the presence and the dung of many men and horses, leading to pollution of the air and water. Massive combustion of wood and coal also leads to air pollution. In England, Edward 1 st enacted in 1272 a proclamation prohibiting the use of bituminous coal in London [4].

Which pollution management ?
" Many ancient documents show that from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution, the conflicts are old and numerous, but that we have most often sought to limit or reduce the nuisance of the craft activities, with measures (fines, displacements of activity, closures ...) and a dialogue between the parties, or investigations of the administration. " " According to historical records (legal, administrative records), these disturbances were pretty heavily controlled and relatively mastered in Paris in the XIV thcentury, by the police as part of its public safety missions. Until this date, the royal or urban governance calls for consultation, seeking a pragmatic balance between economic constraints by the police [5]. "

The revolution of 1789 will spell the end of all pre-existing forms of regulation: in the spring of 1791 the constituent assembly decided the suppression of guilds, corporations, inspectors ... The time of the chemical engineers, already in ambush, has arrived. This is what we will see in the next article.

Reinette reinvested (Al Aveyron) and Jacques Dubart (AL Nantes)

[1] Dictionary of standardized vocabulary of the Environment of AFNOR in France.

[2] " Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective ", Science, Vol. 221, No. 4605, 1983.

[3] " History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice, " Science, Vol. 272, No. 5259, 1996.

[4] David Urbinato, " London's Historic" Pea-Soupers, " United States Environmental Protection Agency, Summer 1994.

[5] Wikipedia, " Industrial pollution ".

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