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(en) anarkis.org: Anarchism in Indonesia BY VADIM DAMIER AND KIRILL LIMANOV [machine translation]

Date Wed, 6 Dec 2017 10:13:51 +0200


The left-wing movement in the Indies clearly emerged through the influence of the Social Democrats and the Dutch Socialists. But only a few ideas about Anarchist are known.[1]Even so one of the first to criticize the colonial system in the Indies was the author-anarchist Edward Douwes Dekker, known by his pseudonym as 'Multatuli' (1820-1887). He worked in 1842-1856 within the Dutch East Indies colonial administration, where he became acquainted with the brutality of colonialism and made speeches, artworks and articles that attacked, and tried to arouse public opinion against the invaders. At the beginning of the 20th century, Multatuli texts had a significant influence on Anarchist and syndicalist workers in the Netherlands.[2]
The grandson of Multatuli, Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker (1879 - 1950), a mixture of European-Indonesian families, became one of the anti-colonial movement fighters in the Indies. During his journey to Europe in 1910-1911, he established contacts with radical fighters for the liberation of the colony, including with Shyamaji Krishnavarma India, which later described him as "political anarchist", which carries out the tactics of individual movements and murders. In Het Tijdschrift magazinepublished by EFE Douwes Dekker in Java since 1911, articles from leftist writers and foreign radicals were published, including Krishnavarma and the Indian anarchist Har Dayal. The publisher in the self-emphasis he wrote, reminiscent of the limitations of workers' rights in Europe itself, and he does not believe that parliamentary democracy can be useful as a way to the society he wants to create. He hinted at the possibility of using revolutionary methods of violence, although he added that the proposed revolutionary path did not always use the method of violence. In February 1913, he publicly wrote that the resistance to colonialism was a moral task, for no matter how "soft" the colonial regime, the system was always based on inequality, injustice and privilege of the rulers, and therefore colonialism is inevitably a form of despotism and tyranny. As a method of struggle, EFE Douwes Dekker mentions demonstrations, agitation, revolutions, passive resistance, strikes (especially in communications and transport), boycott and rebellion. He welcomed the modern revolutionary movement in various countries of the world and, supporting anarchist and socialist propagandists in Europe, welcomed sabotage and syndicalism, condemned reformist socialism. He calls Jesus Christ "a great anarchist" and a fighter for freedom.[3]Nonetheless, in 1912 Douwes Dekker founded E Douwes Dekker mentions demonstrations, agitation, revolutions, passive resistance, strikes (especially in the areas of communication and transportation), boycott and rebellion. He welcomed the modern revolutionary movement in various countries of the world and, supporting anarchist and socialist propagandists in Europe, welcomed sabotage and syndicalism, condemned reformist socialism. He calls Jesus Christ "a great anarchist" and a fighter for freedom.[3]Nonetheless, in 1912 Douwes Dekker founded E Douwes Dekker mentions demonstrations, agitation, revolutions, passive resistance, strikes (especially in the areas of communication and transportation), boycott and rebellion. He welcomed the modern revolutionary movement in various countries of the world and, supporting anarchist and socialist propagandists in Europe, welcomed sabotage and syndicalism, condemned reformist socialism. He calls Jesus Christ "a great anarchist" and a fighter for freedom.[3]Nonetheless, in 1912 Douwes Dekker founded condemning reformist socialism. He calls Jesus Christ "a great anarchist" and a fighter for freedom.[3]Nonetheless, in 1912 Douwes Dekker founded condemning reformist socialism. He calls Jesus Christ "a great anarchist" and a fighter for freedom.[3]Nonetheless, in 1912 Douwes Dekker foundedIndische Partij , there is no anarchism in its program, nor in the activities of this organization.

Three couples in Indonesia (Soewardi Soerjadiningrat, Douwes Dekker, Tjipto Mangoenkoesoema). Dock. National Awakening Museum
Unions that emerged in the Indies from the first decade of the twentieth century were influenced by Marxist socialists, who in May 1914 formed the Indies Social Democratic Society (ISDV). Members of the association also worked actively in the colonial and naval army, who joined the union were members of the low-lying Dutch East Indies fleet. During the First World War-a group that called itself the " Union of Soldiers and Sailors " ( Union of Soldiers and Sailors), in November 1918 committed an army and naval rebellion in Surabaya, also undertook the formation of a Deputy Council of Soldiers and Sailors. Apart from the hegemony of Social-Democracy within this movement, there are also references to the anarchist influence in it, though not entirely clear from the source, whether they are proponents of conscious anarchist ideas, or this definition refers only to the sentiments of the anarchist word itself.

There was a report on the actions carried out by sailors in Surabaya, the action took place on May 7, 1916, caused by dissatisfaction of treatment by superiors, nutrition and poor health care, as well as lack of cleanliness and anger because of the torment of the war . Local newspaper, Soerabaijasch Nieuwsbladmentions that: a "very young sailor with a clear anarchist idea" tried to convince his colleagues not to stop the lawlessness. The demonstration was held without the consent of the Sailor Union leadership and led to a clash with police. During the firefight, 5 people were injured. The Social Democrats barely managed to stop the protests. In the next wave of repression, one of the organizers of the movement was sentenced to 8 months in prison, followed by the dismissal of 47 other sailors.[4]The head of the Dutch Labor Union in the lower ranks criticized his branch in Surabaya for not quickly abstaining from the action, and Dutch Social Democratic Labor Party leader Pieter Jelles Troelstra mumbled that there had been a 'loss of control' over his leadership in the union,Union of Soldiers ).[6]While the commander of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army , Van Rietschoten, dismissed the fact that the military joined the unions and associations that made the "anarchist propaganda."[7]

Propaganda works in the Indies were carried out by many Christian anarchists and Tolstoysians who organized the Movement for Clean Life in the Netherlands in 1901. On 1 January 1907, the movement began publishing Levenskracht Magazine on a monthly time scale, edited by Dirk Lodewijk Willem van Mierop (1876 - 1930), who is one of the Union of Religious Anarcho-Communists . The publications advocate nonviolence, life in nature, natural dress, vegetarianism, and so on. Through the publication, active agitation was also performed in the Dutch East Indies, where in 1923 a branch of the movement was formed.[8]

Chinese anarchists tried to spread the revolutionary idea among the Chinese population in the Netherlands. Zhang Ji, who later participated in the Tokyo Asian Solidarity Society in 1907, spent some time in Java, where he translated parts of an English book, " The History of Java ." He also fueled the resistance of Chinese immigrant groups against Dutch colonial rule. His translation was published in the Zhongguo ribao newspaper , published in Hong Kong as part of the Chinese revolutionary newspaper.[9]

The work of Chinese anarchists in the Indies began before the First World War, local activists worked and established close contacts with anarchist-anarchists in China, the Philippines and Malaya (Malaysia). Initially, different revolutionary ideas clustered around the Chinese reading house, which began to open throughout the Indies since 1909 and became a kind of political association against the Dutch and Chinese authorities, then created newspapers (" Hoa Tok Po ", " Soematra Po ", etc.).[10]After the overthrow of the monarchy in China in 1911, anarchists focused on organizing the workers' movement and spreading the idea of social revolution. They do work, in particular, through the "Workers' Party" ( Gongdang /Kungtong ), which in fact is not acting as a political party, but rather as a kind of workers association or trade union organization. At the initiative of the Communications Bureau of the South Asian Workers' Party (South East Asia) based in Singapore, its branches were established in Dutch East Indies cities such as Makassar (Celebes), Batavia, Surabaya (in Java) and Kupang (west of Timor Island).[11]

Apparently, the first anarchist cell appeared between 1914 and 1916, as demonstrated by the Review of the Anarchist Movement in the South Seas . In the notes, published in the Chinese anarchist publication in 1927, it was stated that in the Indies there were "many comrades doing their best to spread propaganda in the form of a newspaper called Minsheng[People's Voice]in the ports of Southeast Asian islands."[12]]The Minsheng newspaper was founded in 1913 in southern China by an anarchist, Liu Shifu, and published until 1916 and also in 1921. The newspaper is widespread also among Chinese outside of China.

Liu Shifu, a figure of the twentieth-century Chinese revolutionary movement and the Chinese anarchism movement in particular.
Former Chinese League activist Bai Binzhou (Pai Pinchow), who previously initiated the Batavia newspaper Hoa Tok Poe , and another anarchist, Wang Yuting (1892 - 1967), arrived in 1918 from Kuala Lumpur and published a newspaper anarko-communist Zhenli Bao in Semarang.[13]In 1918, an anarchist Liu Shixin, Shifu's brother, began editing the publication of Soematra Po newspaper in the Deli area of Medan.[14][15]

According to Liu Shixin's memoir, he went to Southeast Asia in the summer of 1918 with a group of 6 or 7 men. Initially they stopped in Singapore, but then they moved to Sumatra to propagate socialism. " They have no plans and concepts of the organization as a whole, with a very bad practice ." Soon they attracted the attention of the local police, who called them " Bushiwei " ("Bolshevik").[16]

In 1919, in the Indonesian archipelago, a small group called the Society for the Truth of the Southern Seas based in Singapore was formed, they were spreading material about anarchism.[17]Prominent figures in the Society of Truth , as Chinese researcher Li Danyang said, were Liu Shixin.[18]In April 1919 in Semarang, Chinese workers created the "Labor Party", which was actually in anarchism. The magazine is the previously mentioned Zhenli Bao , published twice a month. The active agitation in this newspaper is echoed by an anarchist named Wu Dunmin, who lives in Malaya England. To the British authorities in Selangor he explained during the interrogation that Zhenli Baopublished by the "Labor Party" with a view to "promoting human rights". But actually, he is openly spreading anarchist ideas in this publication. Thus, in an editorial on May 1, 1919, he clearly welcomed the worldwide working-class struggle and the achievement of the socialist movement, stating that in order to achieve "a free and happy communist land of mutual help" the workers must shake "the shackles created by the rich ", then after that embodies anarchism.[19]That same year, Bai Binzhou and Wang Yuting founded the Sanbaolong Yuebao newspaper[Voice of Semarang], published until 1922.[20]

Anarchist work is also done through the local branch of the Chinese Labor Union, or the "Working Party" in Surabaya and other cities.[21]According to British intelligence, the Dutch East Indies authorities in the 1918-1920s experienced major problems with Chinese anarchist communities in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi. Through police search and with numerous confiscated documents, showing local Chinese anarchist relations with anarchist-anarchists in China and Singapore.[22]After that, in 1918, by the East Cost of Sumatra Institute, the activities of some workers' organizations show they have "economic motives" with certain "political foundations". Particular attention was paid to the distribution of Chinese and Malay newspapers, which expressed "revolutionary and socialist ideas". Also rioting in the plantation was accompanied by repeated attacks on Dutch administrators.[23]

In response to the intensity of the propaganda, the Dutch authorities detained two editors of Soematra Po in March 1919, including Liu Shixin (in English document he appeared as Shek Sam), and other anarchists in Medan, as well as Zhong Fen in Makassar, on the pesantren island . The reason for the arrest was the "suspicious documents" found by police, with a plan they called the "Bolshevik main propaganda campaign".[24]After 52 days of detention, Liu Shixin was deported from the Indies for spreading the idea of anarcho-communism and the Russian revolution. In the summer of 1919, he returned to Guangzhou.[25]Arrested in Java, Wang Yuting and Bai Binzhou were deported to Hong Kong in early September 1919.[26]Zhong Fen and other active agitators are also deported.

Chinese workers from Swatow await their contract preparation by immigration officers at the Medan employment inspectorate, Belawan around 1920-1940.
Regardless of this repression, it did not allow the Dutch East Indies government to obliterate the anarchist movement. Demonstrated in 1920-1921 in Sumatra, a wave of strikes erupted on the railway line of the Deli Railway Company, as well as the next greatest strike that erupted in early September 1920. Five thousand contract laborers and 10,000 civilian railway workers demanded a raise. Join also in strikes, postal and telegraph employees. In addition, local farmers sympathize with strikers, supplying rice and other food.[28]Some of the participants in the strike demanded retaliation against Dutch colonial officials.[29]Many troops were drawn into the Deli area, the cannons were directed to the building where the assembly was held.[30]Intending to thwart the strike, the local government arrested ten activists initially, accused them of breaking the contract, and hundreds of workers were imprisoned along with those arrested, saying: "In prison we will give better food than at the company." The result is that those arrested were released.]Under the threat of dismissal of all participants of the strike, after 15 days of struggle, the long struggle ceased and ended.

The strike's inspiration campaign, according to the authorities, was Zhang Shimei an anarchist-communist from Fuzhou (in Fujian province in China), who came to Medan from Singapore.[32]His biographical details, cited in various sources, are said to be distorted because of his rebellious nature.[33]It is known that he spoke with phases in Malay, and the government was afraid Zhang would continue his anarchist propaganda even in custody. Therefore, he was exiled to New Guinea. In 1923, he was pardoned by a royal amnesty and deported to Singapore.[34]

The decline of the anarchist movement in the Indies was due not only to repression, but also to the disappearance of the movement in neighboring Malaya. Although as far back as 1926-1927, the branch of the Hong Kong Mechanics Workers Union operating in the East Indies supported syndicalism.[35]

One of the last traces of the presence of Chinese anarchists in the Indies was Fu Wumen's activity, which fascinated various anarchist publications between 1918 and 1924, and in September 1928 came to Surabaya. Until 1929, he was listed as chief editor of Dagong Shangbao newspaper .[36]However, there was no evidence of his participation in the anarchist movement during this period.

In the Netherlands, some young Indonesians have contacts with Dutch anarchists. Having found themselves in a much more liberated environment than under the colonial regime in the Indies, many young men built relationships with left-wing political forces (including Social Democrats, revolutionary socialists, and Communists), and took part in the work of the League International against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression, which at its congress were also anarchist anti-militia speakers.[38]Some youths showed an interest in anarchism. Among them, for example, the first prime minister of the Republic of Indonesia (1945-1948) Sutan Sjahrir. As a friend of Salomon Tas-former chair of the Social Democratic Student Club, Sjahrir had made direct contact with him after he came to Amsterdam in 1929-his new friend "moved further and further to the left to search for his radical counterparts", until he finally met a handful of anarchists living in the commune. However, Sjahrir, according to Tas, quickly moved from here and was interested in socialism in a "more practical" form.[39]After Indonesia gained independence, Sjahrir became the leader of the Indonesian Socialist Party.

The fact that the young Indonesian nationalists ultimately disagreed with the Dutch anarchist, was no accident. Although anarchism is against and against colonialism, it is critically critical of the idea of creating new national states. The Dutch anarchist stressed that national independence would not eliminate the position of exploited workers in the colonies, but would only replace the oppression of the invaders with oppression by their own bourgeoisie, their own military, and so on. Speaking at an anti-colonial congress in Brussels in 1927, the representative of the Antimiliter International Commission, anarcho-syndicalist Arthur Müller-Lehning, warned the oppressed people not to follow Western example by creating new countries. He urged them to renew social life in the spirit of eliminating class.[40]And in the League Congress against Imperialism in Frankfurt am Main (1929), the delegation of the International Anti-Militarist Bureau, an anarchist named Bart de Ligt, stated that the struggle should not only be waged against colonialism and "white" imperialism, but also against nationalism between the oppressed countries; not for the power of the national bourgeoisie, but for "a free and open international world ... of all languages and races." He attributed the nationalist struggle to create independent states with the desire of the elites of the states to dominate. "Everywhere in the world we see the emergence of a genuine bourgeoisie who longs to create its power on the basis of the exploitation of the vast masses with its country." This new class must have fought there for national independence, yet at the same time building a new economic system borrowed from the white bourgeoisie ... "- that is the explanation of the Dutch antimilitarist. He called for a struggle against militarism in the liberation movement, and also called for anti-imperialism, which, as demonstrated by experience in China, can only lead to new Chinese imperialism. His position of opinion is clear, he supports unarmed and non-militant movements.[41]It is clear that such statements can be unpopular among activists seeking to create their own national bourgeois state.

At the time of the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945, there was no sign of any anarchist movement in any form in this country. The new state political elite uses the label "anarchism" to condemn their opponents. After 1945, workers began spontaneously seizing railroads, industrial and plantation companies, establishing control over them, and local authorities dubbed this movement "anarcho-syndicalism." As the researcher Jafar Suryomenggolo pointed out, the term is borrowed from the literature Marxist to describe the dangers and risks of workers who are out of control of their country, but the label is not intended to describe the actual process of workers' control, but to reject and perceive the phenomenon of the working class movement. Abdulmajid, who became the leader of Indonesian students after Hatta's departure, and other socialists "brought" the anarcho-syndicalist expression of the Netherlands. As in February 1946, Vice President Hatta publicly attacked "syndicalism," speaking at an economic conference in Yogyakarta that the companies had passed state control.[42]President Soekarno, in turn, feared an "anarcho-syndicalist" tendency in the Indonesian Labor Party created by unions.[43]But this charge has nothing to do with the real anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist movement. "Spoke at an economic conference in Yogyakarta that the companies had passed state control.[42]President Soekarno, in turn, feared an "anarcho-syndicalist" tendency in the Indonesian Labor Party created by unions.[43]But this charge has nothing to do with the real anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist movement. "Spoke at an economic conference in Yogyakarta that the companies had passed state control.[42]President Soekarno, in turn, feared an "anarcho-syndicalist" tendency in the Indonesian Labor Party created by unions.[43]But this charge has nothing to do with the real anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist movement.

Known, anarchism reappeared in the archipelago in the 1990s. In 1993-1994, an Indonesian punk scene emerged. Slowly, the passage turns to anti-dictatorship and anti-fascist activities; they build relationships with social movements and with the labor movement. As described by Indonesian activists, the anarchist movement emerged around 1998. "At that time anarchy was identical to punk, and some people in the community began to pay more attention to anarchist ideology and values. Since that time, anarchist discourse has begun to evolve among individuals and collectives in the punk / hardcore community, and then in a group of activists, students, wider workers, ... "Discussions began about how to create groups and organizations in a non-hierarchical and decentralized way. First of all, small magazines began to be published, in which various social movement issues were addressed: questions about feminism, anarchist values, anti-capitalism, social resistance, antiglobalization, ecology, and so on. Access to the Internet also facilitates the spread of anarchism. The serious problem of the time was the lack of anarchist literature in the Indonesian language, and small pamphlets about Mikhail Bakunin, E. Goldman, R. Rocker had been translated and published ...[44]

The participation of young Indonesian anarchists in the social movement begins by distributing food to the needy (Food not Bomb), supporting demonstrations and doing anti-fascist works. So, in August-September 1999, the activists of the Bandung Antifasis Front supported the struggle of striking workers from the Rimba Aristama factory, holding solidarity and demonstration action. In December 1999, representatives of radical youth anti-fascist groups from across Indonesia held the first meeting of the "Antifasi Nusantara Network" in Yogyakarta, which had anarchist movement orientation.[45]

Beberapa kongres diadakan. Kelompok-kelompok itu belum begitu stabil, sering hancur dan diganti dengan yang baru. Pada akhir tahun 1990'an dan pada awal tahun 2000'an, Komite Aksi Rakyat Tertindas dan Anti Fasis-Rasis Action ada untuk beberapa waktu di Jakarta, dan ada info-shop Brainwashing Corporation yang mencoba menyebarkan informasi tentang anarkisme dan juga teori-teorinya. Di Bandung, kolektif konter-kultur aktif, melakukan aksi langsung "dalam kehidupan sehari-hari"; "Forum Bantuan Reksa Dana/Mutual Aid Forum" ada di Malang. Pada tahun 2001, sekelompok anarkis dari Jawa Barat memproklamirkan (berlawanan dengan orientasi budaya yang berkembang) gagasan untuk membentuk sebuah "anarko-platformis" dan gerakan anarko-sindikalis.

In the early 21st century, anarchist movements in Indonesia remained dispersed; Different groups and individual activists follow different versions of anarchism and tactical forms. Nevertheless, they can join in their efforts to undertake joint projects, such as holding a demonstration on the big day. Thus, in this organizing process, on May 1, 2007, groups such as Affinitas (Yogyakarta), Autonomous Network (Jakarta), Apokalips (Bandung), Urban Autonomy Network (Salatiga), individual activists from Bali and Semarang, people from the Jakarta punk band coordinate. This unification is to initiate a particular movement called "Anti-Authoritarian Network". The May Day Action of 2007 garnered over 100 people and marked the emergence of anarchism in public view. After that,

Arrest of Anti-Authoritarian Network participants by police in Jakarta, 2008.
On May Day 2008, 200 people took part in anarchist demonstrations. Although the group from Bandung ("Apocalypt") and Salatiga ("The Melawan Syndicate") refused to support it, this demonstration was conceived by the collective in Jakarta and the "Affinity" of Yogyakarta. The action was aimed at big companies ending clashes with police near billionaire company building and politician Aburizal Bakrie. Participants in the action were arrested. The May 2008 repression slowed the growth of a young anarchist movement in the country. Several groups broke up. Even so, new activists and groups emerge and continue to participate in social struggles, including in the form of radical, clashes, acts of sabotage and occupation. In 2010, anarchist groups operate on the island of Java (in Jakarta, Bandung, Jogjakarta, Pati, Surabaya, Rembang, Randublatung, Salatiga, Porong), Sumatra (in Palembang, Pekanbaru, Medan, Ace), Kalimantan (in Balikpapan), Sulawesi (in Makassar, Manado and Gorontalo) and in Bali.[47]Some Indonesian anarchists are now interested in anarcho-syndicalism.[48]Thus, in early 2010, a group of activists in Surabaya, Jakartadan and other districts created a small initiative, called Workers Power Syndicate, which claimed to be anarcho-syndicalist and in 2012 helped employees of the Garmondo Jaya garment factory in Bogor during a labor conflict.[49]

In 2016, with the support of Anarcho-Syndicalist Federation Australia(ASF Australia), Anarko-Syndicalist Workers' Brotherhood (PPAS) is organized. PPAS describes itself as a "libertarian labor movement" based on the principles of anarcho-syndicalism, announcing its purpose "a society based on freedom, mutual aid, federalism and self-administration", as well as to fight for the improvement of the day situation -day community of workers.[50]The Anarcho Syndicalist Workers' Brotherhood called on all unions and "interested" individual activists to join him. Members of the group took part in May Day demonstrations in 2016 and 2017. On 1 November 2016, PPAS also participated in a workers' demonstration in Surabaya demanding low wage rates. In 2017, PPAS includes local groups in Jakarta and Surabaya, as well as some independent union members of the Uber (KUMAN) driver. In the same year of 2017, the uber driver union (KUMAN) entered the first serious labor conflict with Uber company, seeking to increase salaries and improve working conditions; strikes and demonstrations were organized. The action was supported by anarcho-syndicalist International, International Workers Association (IWA). At the IWA call on 7 September 2017 in a number of countries around the world, solidarity action with Uber Indonesia driver struggle is run.

Translated by Jojoz Kurohota from the article entitled "Anarchism in Indonesia" which can be accessed at libcom.org .

Footnote

[1]The famous anarchist Max Nettlau even believes that in Indonesia, it seems, "only communist propaganda is available". Cf. M. Nettlau. A Short History of Anarchism . London, 1996. pp. 259.

[2]JM Welcker. Eduard Douwes Dekker // Biografisch Woordenboek van het Social En de Arbeiderbeweging in the Netherlands . 5. 1992. pp. 45-58 - http://hdl.handle.net/10622/5E1ECE1F-ED0F-4D66-89F3-2726DFACF952

[3]K. van Dijk. The Nederlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918 . Leiden, 2007. pp. 47-50. Members of the Indian Social Democratic Union called Douwes Dekker an "anarchist nationalist" (cf. Socialisme en Indonesi ? . Vol.1 De Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereening, 1897-1917 Bronnenpublicatie / Bewerkt en ingeleid door F. Tichelman Dordrecht, Cinnamisson, 1985. ?.187). Dutch Social Democratic leader Henri van Kohl called it "anarchist of action" (cf. JW Schilt.100 jaar Indonesische onafhelijkheidsstrijd: Ernest Douwes Dekker en de Indische Partij // website "NPO Geschiedenis" -

http://www.npogeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/2014/februari/Ernest-Douwes-Dekker-Indische-Partij.html).

[4]RL Blom, Th. Stelling Niet voor God en niet voor Vaderland. Linkse soldaten, matrozen en hun organisaties tijdens de mobilisatie van `14 -` 18 . Amsterdam, 2004. pp. 741-743.

[5]Ibid. Pp. 745-746.

[6]Ibid. Pp. 780, 782.

[7]Ibid. P. 809.

[8]P. Hoekman. Dirk Lodewijk Willem van Mierop // Biografisch Woordenboek van het Socialisme en de Arbeiderbeweging in Nederland . 6. 1995. P.142-147 - http://hdl.handle.net/10622/8749DD55-7ED7-40E5-A629-96EEEB93561E

[9]RE Karl. Staging the World. Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century . Duke University Press, 2002. p168.

[10]A. Claver. Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java. Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800 - 1942 . Leiden; Boston, 2014. pp. 197-198.

[11]Socialisme en Indonesi ? . Vol.1. ?.41. The "Labor Party" (Gongdang), which is a mixture of trade unions, and workers' defense / protection organizations, first appeared in China in December 1911, but was destroyed by Yuan Shikai in 1913. However, his organization began to be re-created in 1913 by the Chinese in Southeast Asia. In 1917, after the liberation of Guangzhou from the forces of North China, there, with support from the "Workers Party" operating in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong - the Overseas Chinese Industrial Federation was formed, which became the basis of Guangzhou's "General Workers Union".

[12]Ou Xi. Nanyang wuxhengfu zhui yundong zhi gaikuang // http://raforum.info/spip.php?article1992[18.10.2015].

[13]CF Yong. The Origins of Malayan Communism . Singapore, 1997. P.19.

[14]The newspaper "Soematra Po" ("Somuntaplap Po" / "Sumendala Bao") was founded in 1908 (cf. Huaqiao huaren baike quanshu: xinwen chuban juan Vol.6, Beijing, 1990. P.474) or in 1909 (cf. A. Claver, Op. Cit. ?.197) by members of the League of Unions. Since the end of 1914, it was first published by the Kuomintang as a weekly newspaper, and after 1924 as a daily newspaper entitled "Sumatra Pin Po". After the Second World War was guided by the Chinese Democratic League. In 1960 it was closed by the Indonesian authorities.

[15]Guang Xushan, Liu Jianping. Zhongguo wuzhengfu zhui shi . Changsha, 1989. pp. 152; Lu Zhe. Zhongguo wuzhengfu zhui sixiang shi . Beijing, 1994. pp. 111; CF Yong. Op. cit. P.15.

[16]Wuzhengfu zhui sixian ziliao xuan. Vol.2. Beijing, 1984. P.935. Chinese anarchist Tanzu In confirmed that Liu Shixin "get to Indonesia to edit" Sumendala Bao "" (Fang Tanzu In - http://www.xzbu.com/1/view-328258.htm)

[17]Kitayskie anarhisty i internazionalnyi anarhicheskiy kongress // Anarhicheskiy Vestnik. 1923. No.5-6. Pp. 76-77; J.-J. Gandini. Aux sources de la revolution chinoise: les anarchisres. Paris, 1986. p. 170.

[18]Li Danyang. AB hezuo zai Zhongguo gean yanjiu: Zhen (li) she jian zita // Jindai shi yanjiu (Modern Chinese History Studies) . 2002. No 1. pp. 50. - http://jds.cass.cn/UploadFiles/zyqk/2010/12/201012141215396273.pdf.

[19]CF Yong. Op. cit. P.23-27.

[20]Wenshi ziliao cungao xuanbian: shehui // Zhonnguo renmin zhengzhi xeshang huiyi: Quanguo weiyuanhui: Wenshi ziliao weiyuanhui . Vol.25. Beijing, 2002. pp. 21.

[21]Report respecting Bolshevism and Chinese Communism and Anarchism in the Far East // British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print . Part II. From the First to the Second World War. Series E, Asia, 1914-1939. Vol.26. October 1921 - February 1922.[Bethesda, MD], 1994. p. 72.

[22]Ibid. ?.72, 74.

[23]AL Stoler. Capitalism and Confrontation in Sumatra`s Plantation Belt, 1870 - 1979 . 2nd. ed. Ann Arbor, 1995. pp. 62-63.

[24]British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print . Part II. Vol.23.[Bethesda, MD], 1996. pp. 289.

[25]Ou Xi. Op.cit .; CF Yong. Op. cit. P.15.

[26]CF Yong. Op. cit. P.19.

[27]Reporting respect Bolshevism and Chinese Communism and Anarchism in the Far East / / British documents on foreign affairs .... According to British intelligence, during a search conducted by the Dutch authorities in 1919 in Semarang, the documents were confiscated, including a circular from the "Society of Truth" to the local branches and directions of the "workers party" of Guangzhou. Zhong Feng is considered an important figure in the "working party", who also got to know his work in Singapore, Penang and other cities in Malaya. After that, Zhong Feng and "Shek Sam" (arrested in Makassar) and expelled from the Dutch East Indies.

[28]Yugo-Vostochnaya Aziya: ocherki ekonomiki i istorii . Moscow, 1958. P.157.

[29].CF Yong. Op. cit. P.17.

[30]Ye.P. Zakaznikova. Rabochiy klass i nacionalno-osvoboditel`noye dvizheniye v Indonezii . Moscow, 1971. P.91.

[31]Ibidem.

[32]Known also as Zhang Hungcheng, Chung Honsen, Chung Wansen, Chung Ximei or Wong Tekchai.

[33]CF Yong noted that Zhang Shimei worked in Singapore in 1920-1921 and came to Medan in 1921. He organized a trainer strike against the Dutch authorities, after being arrested and jailed for 3 years (CF Yong Op.cit .17). According to a Chinese anarchist source, Zhang was the "motor" strike of an electronics technician in 1920 and was sentenced to 6 years in prison (Ou Xi Op.cit.). Finally, it is possible to find information that Zhang Shimei led the workers' movement in Java in 1920 and that he was arrested later and deported from the Dutch East Indies to China in 1924 (http://anti-generationism.blogspot.com/2010/07 / blog-post_5310.html).

[34]Ou Xi. Op.cit. According to CF Yong, Zhang Shimei returned to China in 1925 and joined the Communist Party. In December 1927, he participated in the Communist Party revolt in Guangzhou, and was searched by the Kuomintang. In January 1928, the Chinese Communist Party sent him to Malaya England to establish the South Sea Communist Party's Provisory Committee. He was arrested in Singapore on 8 March 1928 and sentenced to life imprisonment (CF Yong Op.cit P.17).

[35]Ye. Yu. Staburova. Anarhizm i rabocheye dvizheniye v Kitaye v nachale XX v . // Kitay: gosudarstvo i obshchestvo. Moscow, 1977. pp. 213.

[36]Liang Yingmin. Fu Wumen - Xinjiapo huawen bao ren - http://www.chinaqw.com/node2/node116/node117/node163/node820/node825/userobject6ai46284.html.

[37]R. Rocker. Anarcho-Syndicalism . London, 1989. P.165.

[38]For contacts of Indonesian students in the Netherlands with leftist organizations and international anti-colonialist movements see, eg K. Stutje. Indonesian Identities Abroad. International Engagement of Colonial Students in the Netherlands, 1908 - 1931 // BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review. 2013. Vol.128-1. Pp. 151-172.

[39]R. Mrázek. Sjahrir: Politics and exile in Indonesia . Ithaca, 1994. P.59, 61.

[40]A. Müller-Lehning. Der soziale und nationale Befreiungskampf Indonesiens // Die Internationale. 1929. April. Nr.6. S.15-17. In particular, four Indonesian students from the Indonesian Association took part in the congress: Indonesian independent vice-president M. Hatta, N. Pamunchak, Gatot and Subarjo (see K. Stutje Op.cit.). A number of prominent European anarchists participated in League activities against imperialism and its congress in Brussels and Frankfurt, despite the Communist Party's strong influence in the movement. "... Thanks to the League, for the first time we made real contact with the colonial society ..," Müller-Lehning explained in a letter to Indian anarchist MP Acharya on August 15, 1929. "We are trying to work within the League for so long, only, not because we are so happy to work with the Communists, but because we believe that if not, we will lose all contact with the colonial society "cf. H. Piazza. The Anti-Imperialist League and the Chinese Revolution // The Chinese Revolution in the 1920s: Between Triumph and Disaster, L .; NY, 2002. P.174).

[41]B. De Ligt. Die wesentliche Einheit des Kampfes gegen soziale Unterdrückung mit dem Kampfe gegen Militarismus und Krieg // Die Internationale. 1929. October. Nr.12. S.1-6. In the League Congress, Hatta was also present

[42]J. Suryomenggolo. Worker`s Control in Java, Indonesia, 1945-1946 // Ours to Master and to Own. Worker`s Control from the Commune to the Present . Chicago, 2011. p. 222.

[43]GA van Klinken. Minorities, Modernity and the Emerging Nation. Christians in Indonesia, a Biographical Approach . Lejden, 2003. pp. 193.

[44]Cf .: Interview mit AnarchistInnen aus Indonesien // Von Jakarta bus Johannesburg: Anarchismus weltweit . Münster, 2010. pp. 238-247.

[45]Black Flag .[2000]. No.219. P12.

[46]Interview mit AnarchistInnen aus Indonesien ...

[47]Ibid.

[48]It should be noted that in 2006, two Indonesian trade union associations (FSPNI), which contacted IWA in March 2005, and parts of the federation, the National Trade Union Center, established in 2005) were requested to join IWA. They work with the World Federation of Trade Unions. These organizations are not accepted at the IWA, because they are not syndicates of anarcho-syndicalist or revolutionary syndicates, they express their support for UNO, the International Labor Organization, and they have liberated non-federalist functionaries and structures. Congress XXIII M. T.T. in December 2007 formally rejected FSPNI membership (See: XXIII Congress International Workers Association, Manchester, 8, 9 & 10 December 2006// International Workers Association Archiv. BI003, Dec. 18, 2007. p. 50).

[49]Indonesian syndicalists fight for justice at PT Garmindo Jaya KNH - https://libcom.org/news/indonesian-syndicalists-face-30092012

[50]PPAS - Anarcho-syndicalist Workers' Brotherhood. Home - http://ppas.online/en/home/

[51]Uber Driver Strike in Indonesia - https://libcom.org/news/uber-drivers-strike-indonesia-23082017; Solidarity with UBER drivers! // International Workers Association - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores - http://www.iwa-ait.org/content/solidarity-uber-drivers

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