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(en) Indonesia, anarkis.org: Anarchist and electoralism by BIMA SATRIA SON [machine translation]

Date Mon, 19 Sep 2016 14:11:37 +0300

In the late 1970s, in many European countries is growing Green movement (with "H" great) politically aspire to pursue environmental sustainability. They have a network with a variety of political ideologies ekosentris, including ekososialisme, ekoanarkisme and ecofeminism and actively campaign on the issue of anti-nuclear, peace, environmental conservation and civil liberties. The movement flourished after the emergence of Die Grünen (The Greens), a Green Party formed in Germany and public attention. This movement is already networked globally and sensitize on four pillars, namely ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and non-violence. ---- The influence of anarchism on the movement of Green is very apparent in the third pillar, namely grassroots democracy, which correspond to various thinkers eco-anarchists, such as Henry David Thoreau, Elise Reclus and Leo Tolstoy, the dissolution of the political structure of centralized who always try to unify a wide geographic area and supports local control. However, instead of seeking direct democracy and decentralization, the Green Party in the end busy in Parliament and working very spirit with parties other conventional, no matter how 'fare' undermine their principles. Make a left-wing parties were known principled and radical eventually upset and pulled away.

Initially, the Green Party wants to use positions that succeeded them snatched as public education platforms. Also, the Green movement have emerged with a determination as a counterculture (counter culture) to reconstruct society on track boundaries more ecological. However, excessive optimism appears with the hope that MPs will be able to pass laws which are ecologically progressive and enlightened, and that they should try to fight it. Once the legislation achievement of legislation has been a goal, then the party is no longer radical.

This case is a very valuable teaching materials for environment-oriented anarchists in particular, on how to build a movement. But the case is also still not enough to prove that, the ways electoral should be completely rejected for anarchist. Some things to consider is that the Green movement emerged from various circles were very, very plural with a very wide range of ideas. But underlining the struggle at the concentrations: ecology. We can not see the Green movement as an antinomy, in which the individuals within it have a single thing in common, for example, in the production of factors such as the workers or farmers. Since departing from various circles, then perhaps the idea of anti-electoralism by anarchists sink, or anarchists deliberately kept it to budge in order to achieve ecological agendas together among others.

The above case is not pursued to answer complete my intention in this article, namely whether anarchists need to use electoral means to achieve objectives such as the Green movement? Do anarchists should forward its own candidate? Do anarchists need to vote?

Selecting Chief Warden Alone

State (states) clearly undemocratic. Anarchists understand that. But we need to separate the clear demarcation between countries with elements that make it up. The state is immaterial and social objects are non-physical. However, devices that run it, the bureaucracy, the military, elections (general), the law and the constitution, as well as elements that shape is a concrete material. This is the element that shapes the country becomes as a whole entity. Electoralism (support the election) does not mean static. Because the election is not a state, but the state-forming element.

Unlike the state, is something that democratic elections, because the people involved in the decision to determine who the representation and authority. But still, he is not a full democracy and a country that is run by the elected candidates are aristocratic form of government in which power is in the hands of a small group, the privileged or the ruling class. Republic and federal state therefore more democratic than the kingdom, but he's still less democratic.

Forms of democracy as described above is that shapes the country, or so-called democratic state (statist democracy). Democratic state is an integral part of the state in the contemporary period, that is choosing its own authority. This is the main argument many anarchists, who argue that followed the election means that legitimizes the state (see Peacot: 1992 Ward: 1987). Whereas we recognize other forms of non-democratic countries, namely direct democracy (direct democracy) in Ancient Greece or the Swiss Confederation to the present. It can not be sued, because it is true. At the end of the selected candidates will rule over their constituents and preserve the authority and hierarchy that had been rejected anarchism. If the country is a prison, then you are asked to choose their own chief jailer.

So what? All authority is bad, but the authorities could be diverted into crime. In the sense that that authority is something that can be assessed, measured or levels. Very nasty form of authority is tyranny, and he may manifest in the form of government that are considered democratic even as a republic. The state is bad, but a country with evil ruler is hell. As an anarchist who has authority over myself, I prefer to point worse than the authorities who let evil win the election authority. It is also done by other anarchists such as Howard Zinn and Noam Chomsky who expressed their support for progressive candidates like Ralph Nader in the elections in the United States. An American individualist anarchist, Lysander Spooner (1870) also found to follow the election is legitimate self-defense against the state. He reminded that for the static (state support), both voters and those who abstained from the elections are considered legitimate the state.

City election

The failure of the Green movement received special attention Murray Bookchin, socialist-libertarian America. He developed a political program Munisipalisme Libertarian (hereinafter abbreviated ML) that focuses on the principles and practices of democracy. He suggested the dissolution of the state tersentralistik and monopolistic, chopping into pieces in the form of community to the size that can be set by the people themselves through direct democracy. Communities adjacent then link up to form the municipal (city) and municipalities are networked to form a confederation, without dissolving the autonomy of the community. ML is the perfection of form networks of local democracy has actually been implemented a long time ago in Ancient Greece. To realize ML, Bookchin suggests to follow the election and then change the treaties of the city and create a citizen's assembly, a forum where decisions are made directly by the people, not the government (see Biehl, 2016).

The ML course will conflict with inseruksioner anarchists to anarchists lean mass as a source of inspiration, such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Proudhon reap valuable lesson from the Revolution of 1848 that the mass is a source of strength of the revolution. In contrast to the Marxian revolution of thought, Proudhon believed that the revolution took place under a form of spontaneous action of the people (see Sheehan, 2014: xvii-xviii). These thoughts that cause an attitude of 'anti-platformist' among the social anarchist.

Bookchin seeks to make a clear demarcation between the municipal elections with the election of city level, especially when I realized that the anarchist movement is directed against the state. So, ML aims to dissolve the state's grip on the city, and Bookchin suggests that the release is done through the municipal elections. You choose your own warden, who will open your prison bars. The main fault Green movement is due to move alone in the corridor of the country. The main trail their early departure from the socialist parties of Europe, which is based on the ideals and principles-the-back several generations who have a vision of a socialist society. Tragically, when the socialist movement turned into a variety of conventional oriented parties state their vision marred by pragmatism acquisition in the form of holding and extend his power in the form of state positions.

Meanwhile, the ML does not move in the corridors of the country. ML is not oriented to produce more elite members in local government but to recreate the political sphere which allows the highest possibility for direct democracy in the city. In contrast to seize state power, ML tried to wrest control of the city and when direct democracy is created, public office will not mean anything other than as servants of the people.

Selection is politics, but politics is not a state. Anarchists during this shortage, according to Bookchin is because they do not make the division of society into three elements, namely the political, social and country. Anarchists considered to negate the political field with membaurkannya state, to accept the conventional wisdom that politics and the state can change each other-a chaos that runs directly to the static. Thus, the anarchist struggle against the state often deny the existence of political affairs, including the electoral methods.

Bookchin seeks to fill the void, when the core point in the trend of communalist politics has not been sufficiently articulated in the writings of social anarchy. Bookchin see that the anarchists like Kropotkin and Bakunin himself had a similar orientation to the ML. Bakunin, for example, in his view that the municipal councils is fundamental to the political life of the people. "People," he wrote, "have a healthy common sense and practical when running a communal affair. They barely understand and know very well how to choose the officials who enabled in their midst. Because of this municipal election is always properly reflect the attitude and the will of the people, "(see Biehl, 2016). So, even Bakunin also saw that the election is a good thing, on a local scale.

Although Bookchin criticism against the model of the anarchist movement is very sharp and deep, especially to distinguish politics with the state, but actually ML does not really conflict with other anarchists. Bookchin did not dismiss when ML ongoing movement, direct action may be used to advance those demands and display it to grab public attention. ML was also not try to bring the party to seize state power, but the association (association) politics are voluntary actions (voluntary), exactly as suggested by the German individualist anarchist Max Stirner. The association was formed as a study group that campaigns for the formation of ML or extralegal assemblies that run counter to the legislature community level.

To confirm that the ML is not a reformist movement, Bookchin emphasized that ML is not an attempt to build a more progressive city government or environmentally friendly through the selection of the candidates 'enlightened' to sit on the city council. Directions reformers such as this will neutralize the efforts of the movement to create and expand the assemblies of citizens, also neutralizes the larger goal of transforming society. But that candidates should be reiterated as often as possible on the maximum goal of their movement which wants to create direct democracy in their city and in the outer region.

Until now, the electoral method did not show satisfactory results. Burlington Green (Green Burlington), environmental groups in Burlington where Bookchin berjuangan only succeeded in forming a Regional Planning Assembly (NPA). ML city networks in Europe did not lead to a progressive liberation, because of double strength born from the municipal network as expected Bookchin, has not been able to defeat the networked regional countries through the European Union, which strengthens the state. Federation of Northern Syria or Rojava learning of ML-they call Konfederalisme Democratic-created through armed revolution, not the election. Therefore hang themselves on the electoral method alone also can not be justified.


Biehl, Janet. 2016. Politics of Social Ecology Munisipalisme Libertarian. Yogyakarta. Leaves hours.
Peacot, Joe. 1992. 1992. Voting Anarchist: an Oxymoron or what?. Accessed from http://www.bad-press.net/2016/06/24/voting-anarchists-an-oxymoron-or-what-2/
Sheehan, Seán M. 2014. Anarchism: A Journey Resistance. Tangerang. Left Margin.
Spooner, Lysander. 1870. No Treason: The Constitution of No Authorithy. Accessed from http://www.lysanderspooner.org/works/
Ward, Collin. 1987. The Case Against Voting. Accessed from http://www.takver.com/history/elections/ward_on_voting.htm

The author is the Editor in Chief of the Student Press Agency Lantern. Currently active as well as a propaganda stunt coordinator and Grassroots, an organization working in the field of environmental and agrarian reform.

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