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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL October - Education: Towards a liberating critical pedagogy (fr, it, pt) [machine translation]

Date Fri, 28 Oct 2016 11:07:45 +0300


Libertarian pedagogies have designated a set of concepts and teaching practices aimed at the individual and collective emancipation. Yet it is now probably necessary to give new life to this project. ---- The effectiveness of a technique is neither right nor left ... In the field of education as elsewhere, history shows. Thus, from the late nineteenth century, activists of the anarchist movement worker embarked on the project of renewing education. Among these include Paul Robin and Sébastien Faure. This is out of the vertical knowledge inherited from the Church. Instead, we must learn from the scientific experimental method to promote sound pedagogy. Freinet set up after the First World War, a councilist inspired pedagogy that would allow the common people to acquire the capacity to self-manage the factories.

common enemy

But this progressive project is not only shared by actors of the labor movement, but also by supporters of the liberal economy. So at the end of the nineteenth century, Herbert Spencer or Edmond Demolins example, embody this trend. But it is for them to form the corporate elite of tomorrow. The common enemy is a traditional and conservative education. Instead, we must promote autonomy and initiative. The revival of education is also promoted by currents that value above all the personal development of the individual-e. Examples are the educational experiences of Neil Alexander or Carl Rogers.

Thus, ambiguities settling permanently, perdurant until today. The new spirit of capitalism uses as part of the entrepreneurial teaching methods Freinet, or close methods to develop new managerial skills. The difficulty is that capitalism recovers everything that is effective in stripping the intentions that led to their development. But it does seem that new pedagogies are deemed highly effective for learning teamwork or autonomy. What falls under the managerial discourse of "soft skills".

The new education methods traditionally opposed by conservative forces: the "reactionary-publicans' as the name Gregory Chambat. They are defended by modernizing forces, attached to individual autonomy can be liberal or libertarian.

In the 1960s, Pierre Bourdieu emphasizes that traditional education reproduces social inequalities based on implicit that can not be mastered by the children of the ruling classes. Under the effect of mass education, practices begin to change. After Jospin Act 1989, the IUFM (university institutes of teacher education) develop a favorable speech to active methods and constructivist school. These remain relatively limited in practice, but they have more impact in primary school. Several currents of sociology of educational inequality are interested in these put into practice. They observe that the new methods are unfavorable students working classes. Enhancing research independently, they favor the middle classes of students who have already built these skills in their family environment.

It should nevertheless be noted that a study by Yves Reuter in a Freinet school class district shows that it performs well. But the pain experience to expand because it relies on an entirely of Freinet school teachers. The GFEN (French Group of New Education) under the leadership of Jacques Bernardin tries for its part to take account of the criticisms raised in particular by the team of sociologists Escol.

Thus, if we sum up the comments, it is possible to emphasize two points: the risk of reproduction of social inequalities and the risk of recovery by capitalism. However, this situation is hopeless?

Evaluation by competencies

When comparing the field of education in the Francophone world, to other spaces - Anglo-Saxon or Latin American "- it is possible to see that does not show up in the same way. It does not exist in France, it is called abroad "critical pedagogy". The critical educator Henry Giroux US citizen are three currents: Conservative (Traditional), liberal and critical. Critical pedagogy differs from the liberal pedagogy (education or new) in that it not only advocates a revolution in teaching practices, but a political transformation of society by taking teaching as a starting point.

Which is quite specific to France, is that the controversy over the teaching methods focus the debate at the expense of purpose. This leads to that self-es who have yet ideologically different positions find themselves defending the same methods. For example, economic liberals and progressive educationalists could defend the introduction of competency assessment.

It was in the 1980s that are formed around the figure of Paulo Freire, the currents of critical pedagogy. What characterizes this approach is the idea that education should be facing a challenge of social inequalities of class, gender and race. Teaching methods should therefore not be fetishized for themselves, but subordinated to that purpose. This means there can be no dogmatism of learning, but it is using the most appropriate means to achieve that end.

What characterizes critical pedagogy, it is not primarily teaching methods, but the report that it is trying to foster in learners, ie a critical report. Therefore, there can be no question be limited to vertical transmission of knowledge. The teacher and the teacher must create the conditions for the critical appropriation of this knowledge by teaching that values inquiry, dialogue and reflexivity.

The school is a class struggle space

Critical pedagogues, as Giroux, admit that the school is an instrument of social reproduction, but they did not reduce it: the school is a space for the class struggle. Therefore, students are not passive and can also withstand the school culture. Teachers can subvert the school order leading a struggle against hegemonic in their class. Critics are particularly interested teachers is to reveal to learners hidden curricula. These are implicit rules is learned by school pupils to master the middle class or gender stereotypes that are conveyed within the school. These are also for example the ideologically oriented presentations in school curricula.

Irène (girlfriend AL)

http://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Education-Vers-une-pedagogie
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