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(en) Indonesia, anarkis.org: Gender Equality: Manifestation and its perspectives on Anarchism by HANDINI DESI · [machine translation]

Date Wed, 17 Feb 2016 13:08:47 +0200

"A woman should not always shut hes mouth while letting open her womb." - Emma Goldman [1] ---- T ak much indeed conflict involving women fully. However, just look at Rembang, mothers survive in tents for nearly two years against mine karst and the establishment of a cement factory in the area. We can look at Rojava, an autonomous region in Syria, which gave birth to YPJ (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin / Women's Defense Units) , the military wing of Kurdistan in Syria which consists of female militia. They took up arms to protect Rojava from the Government of Bashar al-Assad, al-Nusra Front (Al-Qaeda affiliate) and ISIS. Long before that, women have been involved in many different kinds of action. Women look more large demonstrations in Petrograd in 1917. Hunger and food scarcity makes them demanding and overthrow the Tsarist regime. In November 1929, a war of women in Nigeria. Thousands of women protest and revolt against restrictions on their role in government.

In addition, in 1936, women formed an anarchist organization in Spain. Mujeres Libres was born of anger against hierarchy and male dominance. The founders of Mujeres Libres is the women who are involved in the organization of anarcho-syndicalism in Spain, although the men did not recognize the role of women in public life or politics. [2] Mujeres Libres born as women's liberation efforts. They are also involved in the Spanish Civil War to fight the military coup led by General Franco. In Germany, in 1987, had also been attacks on shopping Adler by armed female guerrilla organization, Rote Zora (RZ). The action is the support RZ against Korean women workers on strike demanding higher wages on textile mill Adler.

In Indonesia, in colonial times, women contribute to win independence from the colonizers. Colonial regime met with resistance from the women in his time. At that time, the idea of gender equality has not been there and did not become conscious. They fight because they feel their rights taken away. They fight through the strength and mind of its own, even some die on the gallows. Call it Keumalahayati or better known as Malahayati. He led 2,000 troops widows Inong Balee-fighters who left her husband dead-against the Dutch colonial army. In fact, in a hand-to-hand fighting, Malahayati managed to kill General Cornelis de Houtman. Another example is HR. Rasuna Said, a great orator. He struggled through the organization and diplomacy. His speeches are often spread the invitation of resistance against the colonial regime and calling for equality between women and men. During his life, Rasuna Said also incorporated in the People Sarekat organizations and Nippon Raya (during the Japanese occupation). There is also a Tiahahu Christina Martha, a young woman aged 17 years who came from Nusalaut, Maluku. Together with his father, he fought against the Dutch troops until finally arrested and then exiled by the colonial administration.

At that time, patriarchy is very thick and covers all aspects of life. Colonial ethical politics, political reciprocation colonial government for the welfare of the natives, with three main points, namely, immigration, education, irrigation is an example. Supposedly the implementation of ethical politics to target all levels of society, both men and women. However, the reality is a lot of irregularities in the politics. Education is only given to men of nobility and capable indigenous groups only. Indigenous men destitute only educated class II. Education intended to obtain qualified staff and cheap. Indigenous women still do not get a chance to get an education. Their job only in the domestic area, a mattress, a well, a kitchen, Manak, cook, macak a misogynistic expressions are condensed in the community. As it was written in the letters Kartini, a Javanese aristocrat women's group, which is then used as evidence of 'success' of the ethical policy of the Dutch colonial government through the writings show his intellect. Kartini's letters to his friend reveals feudalism as well as other forms of inequality between women and men of his time.

Gender manifestations against women

Changes in human civilization from nomadic life, hunting and gathering to settled agriculture alter the construction of gender roles. Permanent agriculture requires clearing process. Land clearing, production and processing of land worked by men. It reduces the role of female labor. Women continue to work in the domestic spheres that are not done man. The division of labor then structured that men do work that is more "heavy" while women get job roles "lighter" and minimal risk, such as keeping livestock or parenting. Slowly but surely, more and more women are kept away from the task of production and domesticated. Since then, born of patriarchy!

Gender is a distinction between women and men based on the social and cultural construction of society, not the human biological condition. The gender difference is not really pose a problem as long as gender inequality, both for men and for women, no. Gender in the sense of the social sciences is defined as a pattern of relationships of women and men based on the social characteristics of each. Included in it is the division of labor, power relations patterns, behaviors, tools, language, perception that distinguishes women with men. As a social institution, gender is not something that is raw and not universally applicable. [3]

In practice, women had stereotypes or negative labeling that women are weak, frail, irrational and emotional. On the basis of stereotypes that, the role of women in decision making in doubt. Decent work embedded in women is a job that is motherhood and full of gentleness. Meanwhile, men constructed for tough, more rational, manly and strong imaged.

Many inequalities still prevail in the system of employment for women, especially the factory workers and other low-sectors. Women's wages are lower than male workers despite working the same hours. With the justification that women perform light work, the same working hours are still considered not commensurate with the work of men.

In addition, there are three systems of kinship or lineage in Indonesia, which is matrilineal, patrilineal and bilateral. Nonetheless, the three systems still regard women as the family caretaker. The position of women in politics and decision-making are also not recognized. Society put the position under the male.

Subordinated gender roles of women in society poses some problems that cause more inferior position of women. Binary perspective that men are strong and women are weak infiltrating various sectors, including the workspace.

Various differences and gender inequalities are manifested in many ways. First, these differences led to the impoverishment of women. Many jobs that "not reserved" for him. The inferior position of women in the economy makes the role of women in making a living only considered in addition to the income generated husband. Man is seen as the main breadwinners because they have more free time and reliable. For working women who are married, double burden could not be separated from it. Married women workers must assume responsibility for serving her husband, taking care of children and taking care of the house when not working. Imagine if women were from ethnic minorities. Not only will it bears a double burden but also loads of other layers in the shoulders, like many minority women whose faith is not recognized. All of these things are the result of social construction.

Because women's work is considered mild, only in the domestic sphere, women are often paid less. For example, a driver and a domestic worker, or a seamstress in a factory and a machine operator. Driver salaries are often higher than domestic workers. Machine operator salary is higher than the salary of a tailor when the same working hours (sometimes more). Moreover, no one can ensure that menyopir it more difficult and require energy to cooking, washing or baby-sitting.

Economic factors become one of the triggers strong in the marginalization of women. However, for women who come from the upper class economy, domestic work transferred to domestic workers. It can be defined as the transfer of marginalization, subordination and the workload to other women who come from lower economic class. Gradually created structures and systems of injustice received, considered normal, and is no longer regarded as wrong by society. This issue is mixed up with the interests of the class. That is why even many educated middle-class women who want to maintain the system and the structure. [4]

The second embodiment is violence. Gender differences often bring women into conflict with men. Violence can happen anywhere, to anyone with a variety of factors. However, the results were recorded, most victims are women. That is why women are often referred to as a group vulnerable to violence. This violence includes physical, psychological, and economic.

Much of the violence because of the stereotype that considers women weak. The violence comes as the gap in power relations between women with men as well as cultural and economic factors. Many types of violence that is harassment even be considered reasonable and not recognized by the victim.

Safe spaces for women in the sphere of work and other public areas were not created. Many cases of rape that occurred in public spaces, such as terminals, public transportation, the workplace, and the highway, but not a few others, cases of violence in the private sphere and carried out by people nearby.

Not long ago, I was shocked by the news of the woman who was stripped and paraded around the village for allegedly stealing sandals. The sandals were taken, and worn around the neck to the hospital. The girl who sat in the first grade junior high school was forced to undress. In the condition without clothes, RS paraded past the village road as far as 1 kilometer. [5]

It really is a form of power relations of men over women is rooted strongly in the community and a culture: a man has the right to treat women in whatever way they wish.

Other stories about femicide experienced workers in the maquiladoras factories, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Hundreds of women workers were killed by a group of unknown people. Murder is often preceded by a robbery and sexual assault. Motive for the killing is characterized by patriarchal male reaction to the lack of jobs for them. More number of women entering the workforce has changed the traditional gender dynamics and create situations of conflict between the sexes. Overall, in considering the potential motives of gender violence against women, academics Mercedes Olivera found femicide is a mechanism of domination, control, oppression, and power over women. [6]

Traumatic feeling of being left behind as the manifestation of physical violence causing psychological violence for women. This condition is risky for the autonomy of women. Women's rights is getting reduced as a result of the treatment that takes rights as an individual piece.

Third, stereotypes and subordination. Marriage and role in the family is very attached to the female body. Stereotype that women are the family caretaker eliminate the chance for women to make a choice of his own life. Many cultures in the community that builds the stereotype that old and unmarried women is a disgrace. The pressure for girls to get married is fairness that occurs in the community.

If you look back to Rojava, as formed an unwritten rule that they do not want to get married until the revolution achieved. Things like this have occurred in Indonesia's independence war. They argue that marriage and engagement contrary to the nature of the revolution rampant. [7] In the constitution Rojava, they even make the article mentions that underage marriages are not allowed. [8] One of the reasons women in Syria to join the militia YPJ is due to marry in the culture demands them.

"I do not want to get married or have children or stay at home all day, I want to be free. If I do not become a guerrilla YPJ, I thought my soul would die. Being a militant means being free-this is what I mean truly free ". General Zelal, 33 years old, YPJ guerrillas. [9]

In the system of capitalism, oppression of women continues to run, and patriarchy is not regarded as a problem. Various reasons are put forward in order to perpetuate benefit the system. Employed women are considered more advantageous because the wage cost. Cheap labor costs accelerate the accumulation of profits for the capitalists. Women workers are also considered more advantageous because positioned as backup power is unlimited. Although women a greater role in the struggle against the invaders and fought in the economic sector, gender equality remains unrecognized and patriarchy still become standard practice until now.

Anarchism and the liberation of women

So how about the liberation of women in anarchism?

No prophet lord in anarchism that his thinking is always justified. There are no holy book, no methods and stages of change that should be followed blindly. I do not deny that there are thinkers like Proudhon's anarchism sexist or racist like Bakunin in his youth, for example. It must be recognized!

The concept of the hierarchy is the root of the problems confronted by anarchism. Patriarkisme as a child and fall is also a hierarchy. Patriarkisme is a social system that puts the degree of men is higher than women's, and everything else, including nature, earth and water. Men become the central axis in a public space or domestic.

Anarchism see patriarchy as a manifestation of the power hierarchy imposed, which must be replaced by an association of independent decentralized. Anarchism see that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class conflict and the anarchist struggle against the State. In the words of L. Susan Brown, "anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, and by itself is very feminist."

For anarchism, women are entitled to the full on the authority of the body and sexual orientation, are entitled to decide to get married or not, have children or not, involved in childcare or not. Women are also entitled to be involved in the organization or union, and in the role of politics or public. Women also have a right to choose contraception. Everything autonomy for women and gender expression are determined by the women themselves. Borrowing the term radical feminists, "it personal is political" ( the personal is political) .

Emma Goldman, the anarchist women who fight for the liberation of women from male domination, was one of the first to campaigning for the use of contraceptives for women as a form of autonomy for the female body.

History says that the resistance was born on the streets. Many access can now be enjoyed is the result of the struggle, demonstrations in the streets, not just a struggle at the level of legal-formal. It must be realized that the state is the enemy that caused the oppression of women. Therefore, it is contradictory if we ask for protection and hope to the country to stop the violence and oppression of women (and men). State and capitalism are inseparable conjugation. State and the capitalist system is a source of oppression for women and men.

As expressed by Milly Witkop, a Ukrainian-born anarcho-syndicalist, proletarian women are exploited not only by capitalism like male workers, but also by peers their men. Therefore, he argues that women must actively fight for their rights, as workers had to struggle against capitalism. [10]

The struggles of women can not be separated from the class struggle. Women's liberation movement is part of a broader struggle of the workers against the class hierarchy in the economic, social and gender. Women struggle nor can be separated from the struggle to take over the means of production as well as the results from private hands to the hands of the people for the struggle for control will not succeed if women have not been liberated.

However, women's liberation is not intended to usurp the position of men and creating new matrialkal system. He aims to create a new order without hierarchy, domination, subordination and domestication.

"The point is not the woman to take power out of the hands of men, because it will not change anything in the world. It is precisely the most important issue was to destroy the power, "said Simone de Beauvoir.


[1] One of the sentences in the speech of Emma Goldman in front of hundreds of people in New York on March 28, 1915. The sentences are expressed in the speech threatens America so he ended up in prison afterwards, http://www.pacifict.com/ ron / Emma.html accessed January 26, 2016.

[2] Martha A. Ackelsberg. Free Women of Spain . AK Press, p.117.

[3] https://phierda.wordpress.com/2012/12/18/perempuan-gender-dan-budaya-patriark/

[4] Mansour Fakih. 2008. Analysis of Gender and Social Transformation . Insist Press. P. 81

[5] https://beritagar.id/artikel/berita/netizen-kecam-aksi-mengarak-remaja-putri-tanpa-busana-di-sragen, accessed 30 January 2016.

[6] Olivera, Mercedes (2006). "Violencia Femicida: Violence Against Women and Mexico's Structural Crisis". Latin American Perspectives 33, Hal.114.

[7] Soe Hok Gie. 1997. People Left at the Crossroads Road . Bantang Culture. Hal.136.

[8] http://civiroglu.net/the-constitution-of-the-rojava-cantons/ , accessed on 30 jaunari 2016.

[9] http://www.marieclaire.com/culture/news/a6643/these-are-the-women-battling-isis/ , accessed on January 30, 2016.

[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarcha-feminism, accessed on January 31, 2016.

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