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(en) France, France, Organisation Communiste Libertarie ocl-lyon - Mediterranean: The murderer Wall Mediterranean by Saïd Bouamama

Date Mon, 27 Apr 2015 09:17:47 +0300

3419 migrants died in 2014 while trying to cross the Mediterranean according to the UN agency for refugees.[1] This gruesome figure makes the Mediterranean the deadliest border, the total number of deaths for the whole world being 4272. Over a longer term there are more than 20,000 migrants who have lost their lives since 2000. The trend is in addition to a permanent increase, 2014 who broke all records by leaving behind the previous peak was 1,500 deaths in 2011. The political and media discourses construct each NEW drama as unpredictable disasters on which governments Europe would have no control and no responsibility. The speech of the disaster lies a mass murder process of the European Union.

The first blind spot of political and media discourse is the economic causes pushing tens of thousands of Africans to risk their lives in crossing they know loopholes. Since the political independence of the decade 60, mechanisms other than direct military occupation came to take over to ensure the reproduction of the "colonial pact" that is to say, the construction of African economies according to the needs of Europe and not to the needs of the African people. Without being exhaustive recall some of these mechanisms.

Blind spots on the structural causes

The agreements on economic, financial and monetary that European countries impose on African countries involve a sale of raw materials at lower costs than the world market and prohibit taxation of imported products in Europe. Consider the recent agreement signed between the European Union and the 15 countries of the West Africa called "Economic Partnership Agreement" (EPA). The agreement prohibits taxation of 11, 9 billion of products imported by the European Union in 2013. It puts the local food and agriculture compete with European industrial agriculture pushing the misery of hundreds of thousands of peasants . The consequences flow from source.

This agreement will strengthen a massive migration of people deprived of the future in their country, in a situation where the West African population will more than double by 2050, reaching 807 million people (against 526 million for EU at the same time), and a warming climate particularly acute in this region."[2]

The exploitative nature of these agreements is as Professor Chukwuma Charles Soludo says March 19, 2012 that West Africa is an EPA (AO) "second slavery". [3] But the EPA is that the large-scale systematic logic of previous addiction starts as "tied aid" imposing the use of French companies in exchange for financing development projects, Adjustment Programmes structural imposing liberal reforms in exchange for a credit or a deferral of repayment of a debt, or worse the institution of the CFA that allows control of the monetary policies of the franc zone. These direct causes of African poverty and migration pressures are killed by the political and media discourse dominant. They belie the idea of an unpredictable disaster over which man would have no control. Media discourse of catastrophe is only a masking process of structural economic causes.

Of course such mechanisms are possible only by the direct or indirect use of force from the assassination of opponents of these policies through the coups or open wars. This is the reason the frequency of direct or indirect European military interventions in Africa. If France is most present in these military adventures in Africa is based on a European delegation. Faced with the rise of emerging powers, facing economic competition unienne states and China, Europe mandate and France for the defense of the interests of "Eurafrique" that is to say, for the consolidation of a neocolonialism socialized across the European Union. This "Eurafrique" economic and military is an old project of certain fractions of European financial capital. It was held back by the competition between the different European countries, which tend to be put into the background because of the increased competition linked to capitalist globalization. Here is how Aimé Césaire already alerted in January 1954 Eurafrica in deceiving solely on the nationality of the soldier:

"I repeat: colonialism is not dead. He excels, to survive, to renew its forms; after the brutal time of the domination of politics, we saw the most hypocritical time, but no less damaging, of the said Association or Union policy. Now we are seeing the so-called integration policy, one that's goal is the creation of the Euro-Africa. But some dons mask colonialism, it remains harmful. To speak only of his latest find, Eurafrica, it is clear that this would be the replacement to the old national colonialism of a new more virulent colonialism still an international colonialism, the German soldier would be vigilant policeman. "[4]

These direct and indirect wars [5] are the second cause of migration pressure. This is not only economically survive thousands of Africans risk their lives in the Mediterranean but to escape European wars and their consequences in terms of installation of dictatorial regimes or worse chaos as in Libya or the Congo with Installation of "warlords" with which trade can continue. Media discourse of the disaster also masks the European responsibility vis-à-vis the cause of contemporary migration.

Frontex and the creation of conditions for mass murder

If the causes mentioned above are enough to understand the increase in migratory pressure, they do not explain the increase in deaths during the migration. To this we must direct our gaze to the responses of the European Union at that migratory pressure. These responses are realized since 2005 by the action of the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX). Agency status provides significant autonomy was further strengthened 10 October 2011 by authorizing it to now have its own military equipment. The financial resources available to FRONTEX are constantly increasing: EUR 19 million in 2006 and EUR 88 million in 2011 [6].

Specifically the agency organizes military patrols to stem migrants to neighboring one hand, and signs agreements with third States countries to make upstream dam on the candidates for the second migration. To carry out its primary mission, the agency has steadily increasing military means made available by Member States or own possession: over forty helicopters and airplanes, a hundred boats 400 units of equipment such as radars, sensors, cameras, etc. [7]. We are in the presence of a logic of war against migrants. Such military capabilities allow the agency to ensure particularly frequent patrols in the territorial waters of the Member States but also in international waters. The Belgian League for Human Rights rightly described the agency as a "real army in the service of migration policy of a fortress Europe, leading to unequal war weapons to migrants who have no soldiers" [ 8]. This logic of war led potential migrants to risk taking more and more important to escape surveillance Frontex patrols. The increase in deaths is not the result of an unpredictable disaster, but the result of decisions taken in full awareness of the deadly consequences.

The second mission of FRONTEX consisting of signing agreements with African countries bordering the Mediterranean is nothing but an outsourced "dirty work" to borrow an expression of the lawyer Claire Rodier. [9] The implications of this outsourcing are logical: "This outsourcing that is for European states to outsource the management of irregular migration to neighboring countries (North Africa, Eastern Europe) has several advantages: first, it transfers the "dirty work" (mass deportations, arbitrary detention, torture) in countries whose standards are lower than in Europe, to avoid the obligations that European laws impose on respect for human rights. On the other hand, it participates in the dependency ratio that the EU with its eastern neighbors. For the countries concerned, it promises in exchange for their cooperation, financing cooperation projects or counterparties of political or diplomatic in nature. "[10]

The dead of my Mediterranean, it is appropriate to add the abuse, beatings and deaths of subcontracting. This role installation conditions of the institutional mass murder, of course, absent from the reports that our media broadcast every deadly shipwreck.

The media discourse on smugglers

Having obscured the structural causes of the increase in migratory pressure and causes of his death in translation in the Mediterranean, it remains to media discourse that will focus on "people smugglers". These would be the ones responsible for the situation and the fight against smuggling networks is presented as the solution. Centering the political and media discourse only smugglers contributes again to hide the real reasons regular dramas of the Mediterranean.

We have, of course, no sympathy for these smugglers. However, we must remember that as long as there is a demand for migrants, there will be an offer of illegal crossings. It is characteristic of policies that do not want to tackle the causes of a social problem that only address the supply and demand to hide. Tackling only dealers without questioning the demand for "artificial paradise" of a growing number of citizens, adopt on alcohol prohibitionist policy without tackling the causes of alcohol, etc. There are many examples of these political hypocrites claiming to act on the consequences while the causes remain hidden. Face higher risks of control, the smugglers are encouraged to get rid of their bulky cargo as soon as possible and by any means. "New evidence collected, Tuesday, Sept. 16, by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) have confirmed the thesis that those are the smugglers who deliberately rammed the boat of hundreds of migrants before it sank "said Elise Vincent in the World edition of 16 September 2014. If these criminals must be prosecuted and punished, the fact remains that such practices are only possible because the European policy creates conditions. These same political orientations create a profit opportunity for the Mafia through the exploitation of those who escaped death. The reporter from Reuters described as follows this new "goose that lays golden eggs" of the Mafia in Lampedusa:

"Here, eight hours by boat from Sicily, the Mafia already done his business by welcoming migrants in centers operated by private companies delegated by the state. It's always the same who win tenders for years. A migrant relates grant thirty euros per day. With tens of thousands of migrants, it is a golden business more profitable as drug trafficking, by the admission of a gangster, trapped by wiretaps in a corruption investigation in Rome. What is true in the capital will be true throughout Italy. An illustration of this organization, this is the scenario, always the same, the above relief. Aboard rotten tubs Libyan parties, there is nothing to eat or drink, no gasoline, but a satellite phone to call for help. Far too expensive equipment to smugglers. On land, migrants provide labor cheap. In agriculture for men in prostitution for women. A real slave trade, and slavery are Africans and Italians."[11]

Discrimination on the research consider that the forms of these is systemic discrimination, that is to say, being the consequence of a system and not a voluntary decision to discriminate. We can take the same concept regarding the deaths of the Mediterranean. Certainly the murder of these migrants is not direct. However, it is the inevitable result of the policies of the European Union both in its Africa policy in its migration policy, both in the increase in migratory pressure in its translation into large-scale death.

PS This text was originally published March 15, 2015 on the Blog Said Bouamama ( https://bouamamas.wordpress.com ) and April 21 on the website "free words" ( http: //www.paroleslibres.lautre. net ... ).


[1] http://www.unhcr.fr/54871a45c.html

[2] Press Release, No to the signing of the Economic Partnership Agreement EU-West Africa by the Council of the European Union! 11 December 2014 http://www.solidarite.asso.fr / IMG / p ...

[3] Jacques Berthelot, is urgently stop imposing EPA, January 16, 2013, http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/po ...

[4] Aimé Césaire, "Colonialism is not dead," The new criticism, No. 51, January 1954, p. 28.

[5] To confer to go further, Raphael Granvaud, What does the French army in Africa?, Agone, Marseille, 2009.

[6] Frontex, "The arm of the Fortress Europe," The World Tomorrow, No. 18, March-April 2013.

[7] Ibid.

[8] "Frontex: war against migrants" - the audio document http://www.liguedh.be/les-fichiers- ...

[9] Claire Rodier, Xenophobia Business. What are the migration controls, La Découverte, Paris, 2012.

[10] Interview with Claire Rodier in Libération, 01/10/2012.

[11] Antonio Parrinello, Reuters January 17, 2015.

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