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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #230 - Revolution Black Dossier: Black reformist movements: The pitfalls of bourgeois strategies (fr)[machine translation]

Date Sat, 19 Oct 2013 16:41:14 +0300

Parallel to the black revolutionary movement, the United States experienced various carriers reformist movement strategies aimed at the gradual improvement of the lot of blacks and their integration into the capitalist society. ---- Among the bourgeois strategies coexisting with revolutionary movements, the oldest is the gradualist (progress in stages), dating back to the time of EW Dubois, led by the NAACP. Movement of black bourgeois elite who tried advanced slowly through the courts, it never ceased to bring about political power when his class interests were threatened. Integrationist involved in the civil rights movement also remained in a gradualist strategy and did not arise the question of breaking with power and institutional strategies.

The Black Power of Stockely Carmichael, SNCC activists from [1], was a slogan which has influenced the thinking of each section of the black community slogan that can be understood as "power-cons". The movement was initially mainly an anti-capitalist influence (Carmichael and Rap Brown join a time the Black Panthers), but ranged between reformism and revolutionary action.

The ambivalence of "black power"

The slogan of Black Power, however, was recovered the following year by the black bourgeoisie as well as Richard Nixon. Eldridge Cleaver says, "since Nixon outlined his doctrine of black capitalism was deliberately poured millions of dollars into the hands of the black middle class was deliberately favored straw men from the ranks. We begin to integrate the black bourgeoisie to the ruling class."[2]

The toquenisme

Along with the end of the civil rights movement, the first measure of affirmative action were implemented, but they do not for the questioning of the economic base and state of racial oppression, did not allow social progress only a small layer of the community. All these strategies have been defined by the black radical movements by the term "toquenisme" as they analyze the situation where the system opens the margin to better maintain and reproduce. The toquenisme allowed only strengthening the middle class and the black middle class but has not challenged racial domination today racial oppression and exploitation continue, the U.S. president is black n 'there is nothing changed. In France itself, the focus on an elite "native" to meet the standards of integration and assimilation is a way to tell others: "Stay in your place, and if you do not succeed is that you do not have enough work." The toquenisme also exists here.

Nico Pasadena (commission racist)

Case summary:
The roots of racism: From slavery to the ghetto
labor movement: black or white, always proletarians
Malcolm X: a life in black and white
Malcolm X: Building a Black Power
The Black Panthers beyond the myth
The Black Feminism: at the intersection of oppressions
DRUM: The struggle of blacks in the workplace
black reformist movements: The pitfalls of bourgeois strategies
Harana Paré (historian): "This is the revolt that brought into existence the American Black"
A Black Revolution remains to be done

[ 1 ] Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (Coordinating Committee nonviolent students)

[ 2 ] Daniel Guerin From Uncle Tom to the Black Panthers , the good characters, 2010.
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