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(en) France, Alternative Libertaire AL #230 - Folder Black Revolution: Malcolm X: A Life in Black and White (fr) [machine translation]

Date Sun, 13 Oct 2013 12:56:42 +0300

Life and political career of Malcolm X still echoes the experience of many young people in neighborhoods around the world, as it echoed the time than many black-es ghettos. In this, the course is eminently political and insightful. ---- The political career of Malcolm X was not slow and progressive but the fruit breaks sudden and profound. His life was a succession of shots theaters [ 1 ]. After a small stable childhood, came the death of his father, followed by the mental degeneration of his mother put him on welfare. Then a childhood relatively preserved in the white schools. Malcolm wanted to become a lawyer, but one of his teachers dissuaded him because he was black, advising him to become a carpenter [ 2 ].

Getting rid of his tutors, he went into the jungle of Harlem, and enjoyed a life of petty criminal, is trafficking and consumption of drugs, burglary, games ... imprisoned, the prison fashioned again, his life held the changed beyond recognition. He enters into a delinquent and drugged prison cellmates call Satan because of his hatred of religion. From these seven years in prison converted church Nation of Islam preached by the "Honorable Elijah Muhammad." New mutation when Malcolm becomes a policy guide and a new tribune of the movement that he will contribute significantly to the rise: it goes from 500 members when Malcolm accedes to about 50,000 twelve years later.

A life of rupture and radical
New violent rupture when Malcolm is excluded black Muslims. Several reasons for this failure: first, the scandals of adultery Elijah Muhammad with several of his secretaries are wavering unwavering confidence that Malcolm vowed to his mentor on the other hand, the rivalry of the latter against the 'media first ascent. Especially, Malcolm is eager to act: he sees the movement of black fat challenge and wants to get involved. The cause of his dismissal was a minor event: his remarks on the death of Kennedy, Malcolm saying pleased to see " â poultry hatred and violence that the United States has dropped in the country and around the world return the henhouse â . " This was the reason for the exclusion. If at this point the dissent with the Black Muslims was not ideological, despite everything, from that moment, his mind had gone to evolve very quickly from month to month, especially following his travels and meetings he made ââin Africa and the Middle East. The weeks that followed led him to a position of sheer black nationalism, not religious dimension. He stayed away from the integrationist movement and never abandoned his rejection of "Uncle Toms" (black or accepting collaborating white oppression). Despite its isolationism, this position had merit warn against a black es submission to the interests of the privileged.

During his pilgrimage to Mecca, contact pilgrims of all colors from around the world led him to reject the blanket condemnation of whites. His American experience did not allow him to think before he could be no color problem among people. He renamed El Hajj Malik Al Shabbaz. Upon returning to the United States, he separated his religious commitment (the Muslim Mosque Inc.) and its political activities with the creation of the Organization of Afro-American Unity are open to black-whatever their beliefs. He freed himself from what his ideology was still simplistic and sectarian, and in common with the Black Muslims. Abandoning the idea of a separate territory or return to Africa, he was ready to make a journey with the integrationist, while remaining highly skeptical about this strategy: " â integrationist or separatism are only strategies, but Our common goal is justiceâ â "[ 3 ]. Malcolm predicted that his enemies after his death, travestiraient as a symbol of hatred. It had to be done before it becomes too dangerous. He was assassinated February 21, 1965 during a conference he held in Harlem. The personal secretary Malcolm said: " â He was a thorn in the side of a formidable apparatus of power decided to go to war in Asia against the other non-white peoples. The murder comes from the same forces that murdered Lumumba ... "[ 4 ].

Policy: emancipation
The golf Malcolm illustrates a form of reclaiming his life and empowerment through political engagement. His life, Malcolm spoke without omitting anything, he spoke of his past off-the-law without remorse or boastfulness: if he intended to go to the bottom of his story is to help our black brothers to think a collective emancipation [ 5 ]. Malcolm opened the way to a (no longer black and white but are oppressed against oppressors) clear political orientation binary analysis and especially more radical, that would change the face of the black liberation movement.

Nicolas Pasadena (commission racist)

Case summary:
- The roots of racism: From slavery to the ghetto
- labor movement: black or white, always proletarians
- Malcolm X: a life in black and white
- Malcolm X: Building a Black Power
- The Black Panthers beyond the myth
- The Black Feminism: at the intersection of oppressions
- DRUM: The struggle of blacks in the workplace
- black reformist movements: The pitfalls of bourgeois strategies
- Harana Parà (historian): "This is the revolt that brought into existence the American Black"
- A Black Revolution remains to be done

[ 1 ] Daniel Guerin From Uncle Tom to the Black Panthers , the good characters, 2010.

[ 2 ] Malcolm X and Halex Haley Biography of Malcolm X , Grasset, 1993.

[ 3 ] Malcolm X and Halex Haley Biography of Malcolm X , Grasset, 1993.

[ 4 ] Daniel Guerin From Uncle Tom to the Black Panthers , the good characters, 2010.

[ 5 ] Daniel Guerin From Uncle Tom to the Black Panthers , the good characters, 2010.
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