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(en) Brasil, União Popular Anarquista (UNIPA) - Anarchism and Violence: the tasks and limits of "Black Bloc" tactics (pt)

Date Wed, 20 Nov 2013 09:37:59 +0200


Militants identified as Black Bloc has been the target of persecution. The police, the government Cabral and Dilma try to put them in prison as criminals. On the other hand, parties like the PT, PSOL and PSTU and union leaders pelegas do the same. Try to make the criticism that the Black Bloc "hinder" mass actions. They create a false controversy. ---- What is the Black Bloc? What are its limits and what its potential transformer? We must first observe the story. The Black Bloc is a form of struggle that emerged in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s. This tactic was intended to defend the "occupations" (abandoned buildings that workers had turned into community centers). The police used extreme violence. So the activists started using bike helmets and shields improvise to try to prevent evictions. That is, the Blackhawk Bloc was a medium.

The end was the defense of a social organization against police violence and state. But it was in the movements against globalization in the 1990s that the Black Bloc became known worldwide. Now, after the crisis of 2008, the Black Bloc tactic has been widespread in several countries in Europe's periphery (Greece, Spain, Italy), Africa (Egypt) and in Brazil.

But in reality this is not the first form of self-defense of the workers and oppressed peoples. In fact, in Brazil and in the world ever existed various forms and self-defense tactics and mass violence. The main forms were the revolutionary syndicalism, who considered sabotage, resistance to police and insurrection as the center of his repertory. These resisted both in street demonstrations, as with clandestine forms of organization. Many carried guerrilla actions and became known as expropriated because expropriavam banks to finance the revolutionary struggle.


Photo: Spanish Civil War, 1936.

But these tactics are not exclusive to the popular uprising of June. In many situations, peasants and rural workers burn sugarcane farm and headquarters. The workers destroyed the housing company as a protest against poor working conditions and destroyed the union bureaucracy. Soon, self-defense tactics and mass violence are neither new nor unique to the Black Bloc.

So how can we understand the criticism of the Black Bloc? There is a bourgeois criticism. Think all this fighting are criminals. But there is also criticism of the opportunist left that says the Black Block, by use of violence, the masses away from the fight. His argument becomes untrue for two reasons: the emergence of the Black Bloc tactic in Brazil follows the mass movement. Massification that bureaucrats and union supporters had never achieved.

Why the Left opportunistic attacks the Black Bloc and all forms of mass violence? Because she needs to show that respects the limits of the bourgeois order, which will never create organizational forms that threaten so real that power. Ie, the opportunist left and the rich and powerful fear the people, the people try to take power. This is the root of the problem.

In this sense, the Black Bloc tactic is only one in the history of the workers' struggle. 1: The Black Bloc is a tactic, not this tactic, without incorporating and defend this tactic no revolutionary movement. The tactics of the Black Bloc and its defensive and offensive dimension should be integrated by a revolutionary strategy. The mass of workers are marginalized in teaching and creating conditions for effective social changes in Brazil. Without the use of this tactic, mass violence, no revolution and no one can proclaim itself revolutionary.

What are the limits of the Black Bloc tactic? Despite the use in countries like Germany, USA, Europe, throughout the Anti-globalization Movement, not able to create a movement to overthrow capitalism. Only mass violence without an organization and a program is not enough. It runs the risk of turning "means in the end." Or, as happened to certain sectors of the Black Bloc in the U.S., consider the actions of mass violence as an act, to satisfy the desire for individual expression.

But the unions do not pose the problem of mass violence can not be a revolutionary factor seriously. Large popular uprisings like Ecuador in 1998, Argentina in 2001, Bolivia in 2005-2006 do not take this strategy and tactics, were integrated into capitalism and failed to perform social changes.

Therefore it is necessary and we must avoid two mistakes: pacifism counterrevolutionary, condemning the violence of the masses, and the myth of violence as an end in itself. So the task is a mass organization of revolutionary syndicalist type, which educate, politicize. At the same time it supports the forms of self-defense and street fighting. And who fights against the union bureaucracy and political parties. The Black Bloc tactics need to integrate the Strategy Revolutionary Syndicalism. Out of it she tends to isolation and weakening. Inside it enhances and leverages the organization classist and combative.
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