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(en) Federation of German anarchists - The uprisings in Taksim - between hippie flair, self-government and nationalism (de) [machine translation]

Date Tue, 02 Jul 2013 12:15:24 +0300


The current protests in Taksim (Istanbul's) began as a gentrifizierungskritischen action on 27.05.2013. Had called urban development, eco, LGBTQ, animal rights groups and anarchists. Specifically, it was about the planned destruction of Gezi parks, which felled trees and should make way for a new shopping center. But how could this small action initially turn into a revolt of the masses? ---- In North Africa uprisings began last year with the action of an individual. Sometimes small protests can be the last straw that breaks the camel's back kindled and collective claims. It also abolished the small rally in Taksim, disclose the dissatisfaction of thousands of people, so that the subject completely shifted from its original source, a movement against the ruling AKP party ("Party of Justice and Development"), and in particular against their Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan and grew up against its police.

During the initial Gezi Park Action held a rally and set up tents in the park, which was already surrounded by Baubaggern. On 1 June police raided by 5 clock in the morning the ground and set fire to the tents of the sleeping (!). The awakened and storming out of the tents people attacked them with batons and tried to evict them from the premises. It was probably this immense and brutal repression by the authorities against the civilian population, which caused the spread of the protests.

Why suddenly appeared on national flags?

* Individual politicians inside the BDP ("Party of Peace and Democracy", represents the interests of the Kurdish population at parliamentary level) heard about the repression and came to the park to join the protests. Here, among other things, a photo, which it showed a BDP-politician as he is opposed to the dredging, to prevent cutting the trees used.

This in turn moved the Kemalist CHP ("Republican People's Party", founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk when he founded the nation "turkey") to deeds, because these feared the BDP lead to the current parking protests and thereby gains popularity. To distinguish his own party, then suddenly appeared * politicians and members of the CHP with Turkish flags and Ataturk portraits on the Gezi Park. Thus began the first nationalist character of the protests. This was apparently the spirit of the time, since the Erdogan government had lost the very first time in the history of Turkey, Kemalism in power and influence. Among other things, Erdogan had broken the omnipotence of the military, which acted as the guardian of Kemalism and this had been in the past in the form of several military coups forcibly expressed. So Gezi Park were now seen everywhere at once in the national flags and hear slogans like: "We are all soldiers Kemal!", "Resignation of the government" or "dictator Tayyip".

Meanwhile, organizations of any other persuasions had joined the protests, including Marxists * inside. To understand why the Turkish national flag was used not only by Kemalist circles, one must go back a little. The historical education in Turkey is strongly influenced by the view that the Kemalist army was a revolutionary leader, has ended the European occupation and led an anti-imperialist war ended conservatism and Islamism and secularism brought. When around 1968 created various Marxist movements, called many Marxist leader, given the small working-class * inside this on, to unite with Kemalism, because you can only reach so a socialist victory. Some Marxist organizations then began to use the Turkish flag as a symbol of the independence of capitalist, imperialist countries (USA, Europe). This placed the national symbolism in left circles and is not limited to the followers * inside the CHP community. This historical development was the basis for the national flag that was used in the current protests by many people as a symbol of the protests. As anarchists, we find the course ludicrous, but given the historical basis not surprising.

However, during the whole protest was no party or organization in the foreground, which is very unusual for the turkey. Circles of the CHP, the protests have become ever popular nationally, in the foreground but rather the general discontent was the regime. A variety of people were on the streets to express their discontent, or to demand more freedom and autonomy - especially young people. In many of Kemalism was not really in the foreground and they let just carried away by the momentum of protests - through the many national flags did not think it erroneously as if there were a unified ideology.

The development of the protests and the Taksim community

During the protests, the unions also joined the DISK and KESK events and even called out a general strike. The PKK and BDP talking in the background now, however, because they probably did not want to jeopardize the peace negotiations with the government. But what is really surprising is that even the MHP ("Party of the nationalist movement," the so-called "Grey Wolves", ultra-right-wing party), began to participate in the protests. There were now everywhere battles with the police, which united the whole spectrum from left to right.

After the protests showed no end to the mutual attacks between police and demonstrators further heated the more likely that the police changed the strategy after a week and withdrew. In Taksim again now was a huge "community" founded: a self-governing area with tents, activities, workshops and evening plenaries. Here the money was abolished: Drinks and food were organized with the support of all and distributed for free on the site. There was no central administration, but meetings in the evening, where the events of the day were discussed and also other activities planned. During the day, thousands of people were sitting on the lawn, many of them remained with their tents at night. Everywhere was music, singing together, cooked and VoKÃs performed. Films were shown on large monitors (and even football games) and concerts were performed. Physicians * built inside despite a ban by the government hospitals to provide injured. In lighted or embarked police cars books were made and founded libraries.

The municipality generated a great response. From other cities, there were signs on the streets with the inscription "Taksimer Commune". In just one week the community was visited by 2 million people, from families with children, pensioners * inside * inside actor, football players and many more. As a result, they gained more and more support. The development was very scary for the government, so that the police now received another intervention instruction and the site on 11 June admitted.

Is to emphasize that there has never been such a concept in the history of the turkey, which makes it all the more extraordinary. Such collectivist construct would have been unvollstellbar. In left-wing circles, which had characterized previous protests, an immense ideological split had been due to make out va personal disputes. Also between different ethnic groups. And even between left and right.

In the current protests, however, these barriers have been overcome. For example, there was no conflict between anarchists and people who hoisted the national flag. Muslims also took part in the anti-capitalist protests and led 5x/tÃglich their prayers through without Left intervened. On the other hand, overcoming the barriers has reached such a dubious extent that the Left is clamped together with fascist * inside. There are some pictures and images of how recordable as leftists and fascists mutually help up from the ground or support attacks against the police. Probably noticed, the two are mutually PREVAIL currents, armed to the present. Only a few months ago, a left student at the University was killed by fascist students. What still is a lot of peculiar: suddenly all shouted together slogans like "Together shoulder to shoulder against fascism". The term "Fascism" is, however, based on the ACP - yes, even the MHP is the ACP now as "fascists" ..! The MHP this development was in turn probably a bit fishy, ââso they called on their followers to a few days to leave the protests (which then happened). How all this could take that phrase and what does it mean, no one really knows. We are at a loss as anarchists, but find the tendency to make common cause even with fascists purpose common enemy, highly disturbing. Quite apart from the fact that we do not find Erdogan better or worse than other government officials. His government also abolished as part of other governments. The system would be fairer if another party came to power.

Maybe the population is sick of ideological conflict. Or they just clamped together because of the common enemy of all connects. But perhaps comes again a political movement by the 90-generation, which has always been denounced as apolitical, disinterested and antisocial, but the current protests played a significant role. Perhaps the current events could also be a kind of belated "Flower Power" movement of the turkey. For although around 1968 a lot has happened in turkey, all movement restricted solely to the political level. There was an attempt to change the political system, but no movement in terms of culture, ecology, women's rights, free love, pacifism, municipalities, music or art. In the municipality of Taksim, however all of these elements floating in a kind of "hippie flair" on the premises. Most likely, the current protests will pave the beginning of a new political era in Turkey. In which direction this will go, but it is unclear. You could also go in the direction of self-government and autonomous projects, such as in the direction of Kemalist takeover.

The role of anarchists

Anarchists were active in the protests from the beginning, especially since they had called the end of May together with other groups to the very first park occupation. With the immense rush of Kemalist * inside and left them, however, were pushed into the background, as anarchists still account for only a small portion of the entire left inside the turkey. The effect was therefore practically only to the outside of claims Kemalist (especially the call for secularism) dominates, even the otherwise very large Marxist movement went under.

At the barricades, in the community and in the plenums were anarchist * inside but active throughout the protests, though hardly in an organized way. Most were not wearing anarchist flags or other symbols, which further detracted from their public perception. However, there was at the protest site a variety of information booths where anarchist books, brochures and flyers were launched. Also a * r always jumped again a gespraytes A in a circle counter.

Unfortunately, even the anarchist movement in Turkey is divided against itself, and has not managed during the current protests to come together sufficiently. As a result, although there were many individuals who were active, but hardly organized action forms a larger number anarchists. Many anarchists were in the district "Cihangir" (300 meters from Taksim) together, which was known as a center of anarchist activity even before. Barricades were erected here and fought for days. This, however, without networking or meetings among themselves, but rather as a meeting individualistic actions.

The only group that actually occurred organized and also to the outside world was seen as anarchic, was the DAF ("Revolutionary Anarchist Action"). This is a Platformist group, which has largely kept inside * of other anarchist. Many anarchists criticize the DAF as authoritarian and hierarchical. However, one must keep her credit, she has shown the only anarchist group presence during the protests and its roughly 300 members in Istanbul were constantly active, have opened stalls and fought on barricades.

You should also mention the football fan club "Carsi" (einFanclub the football club Besiktas), which was active in various parts of Istanbul. You have an anarchist line for years and depend, for example Transpis during Fussspallspielen on. Your name "Carsi" they write with a circle around A. During the protests, they were also present.

In the capital, Ankara, there was a greater presence and network of anarchists. Here were jointly carried out actions, especially with eco-and LGBTQ activist and Marxist * inside * the inside, the fighting reached a far more violent and more radical extent.

The current situation

After police evacuated the Taksim Square, made on 17 June, the action of a young man stir. By the media as the "Duram adam" (standing man) betiltelte activists remained for hours on the Taksim Square without flinching or looking in any specific direction. His quiet Akion caused quite a furore, so that he was present in all media soon. The only time he responded to questions from the media, and that he expressed to the BBC that he was an anarchist and civil disobedience bar. His form of protest soon found imitators * inside, so that hundreds of people joined him and stayed rigidly on the court. After a few days, actually a comrade drew the initiator, the way out of the movement, back and thought that now it do not need it any more.

The whole thing has assumed a rather paradoxical extent. In the meantime, now appeared namely opponents of the so-called "standing people" (mostly from ACP circles), which activists protest against the standing * inside and these are rigid and with just blankly over. Since a few days, the police has now joined the spectacle has established chairs in a row and sitting protested against the "standing person" - and reading Russian literature, and all else that touches the crown. Current and expected the Taksim Square more like a grotesque scene to: masses of people who are frozen into a pillar of salt and each other mute to ...

On the other hand, again, there are house searches of activists inside * by the police. Also arrests take place, and it is difficult to give numbers.

An experience for anarchists

Although no anarchist ideas as such were in the foreground and the protests were unfortunately affected very nationalistic, so anarchist elements in the structures of Gezi Park protests were still present in many ways. So no party or organization was at the forefront of the protests, as there was little centralized management. There were a remarkable number of individualistic forms of action (such as the one with the "standing man"), which originated from their own initiative of individuals. Money and property were abolished, at least in the community and political protests were interwoven with cultural events. The protests were organized anti-authoritarian and non-hierarchical. These are all elements that are typical of the anarchist idea and movement. In addition, there are elements that it has never happened before in turkey. Even if we disturb the parliamentary nationalist and strategic direction of the protests, so these are probably still aspects that need to be taken into account. You could characterize space for new developments - or even for new ideas. In any case, the threshold is decreased in all age groups, go for the own concerns to the street or to provide even clashed with the police.

For anarchists, the protests were also an important experience. You can show us our weaknesses or errors and have raised many questions. For example, the question of whether a insurrektionalistischer or organized approach makes sense. Or the question of how to position themselves as anarchists in towards nationalism. Or, if you should not ally themselves with libertarian people or act independently of them. And if you ally yourself: how to preserve their own line?
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