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(en) The Bolivia's Lessons: the proletariat in pre-revolutionary situation by UNIPA - UNIPA/Brasil

Date Sat, 18 Jun 2005 21:29:16 +0300

Official Report of the UNIPA (Anarchist Popular Union) # number º08
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June of 2005 unipa_net-A-yahoo.com.br "To the
Bolivian people; To the militants of the Brazilian and Latin-Americans
social movements. To the revolutionary companions all over the world."
The initiated political crisis in May of 2005 in Bolivia walk toward
making a pre-revolutionary's situation. The masses popular mobilizations
culminated with the fence of the capital (La Paz) for the masses movements,
with the blockade of the main highways of the country (paralyzing the
circulation of commodities and the economy) and president's Carlos Mesa
renouncement; then with attacks to the National Congress of the Country,
during the impasse generated by the presidential succession.

A theoretical analysis of one more political crisis in Bolivia is
necessary. This political crisis in Bolivia comes inside of a cycle of
crises provoked by the adjustment of the Latin-American countries to
the liberal economical regimes, imposed by the international
imperialism. The case of Bolivia is to give two important lessons to
the international proletariat: 1st) the first lesson that the Bolivian
people teach is us the one of the possibility of popular resistance the
liberal reforms and reversion of certain unfavorable measures to the
people, imposed by the bourgeois forces and their allied ones, through
the direct action of masses, of the strikes and street fights; 2nd)
second lesson, its tells respect the limitations that a masses
movement without a revolutionary direction guided by clear and very
defined program and theory.
The Bolivian people demonstrate to be a warlike people, with deep
disposition for the struggle. Its fight has been so intense that it is
provoking successive crises politics in the country, firstly the one that
took down of the then president Gonzalo Sánchez of Lozada in 2003
and now "War of the Gas". On the other hand, and contradictory, in
spite of the force of the masses movement, of the political pressure
that this exercises, this movement didn't develop, in a first moment,
in a revolutionary direction. This is extremely serious, because the
logic of the capitalist system indicates that the repression is a
proportional variation the popular mobilization, what means that as
the mobilization of masses grows, the repression will be enlarged, in
way can do to culminate in a Dictatorship, that would have the
mission of destroying the popular organization focus.
In this sense, it is necessary to escape of the mere allusive greetings
and to analyze the crisis in Bolivia of a materialistic point of view. To
indicate which the possibilities and weaknesses of the masses
movement toward the current political crisis. It this that we will do
starting from the bakuninist method materialistic.

1 - Characterization of the Situation and of the Alternatives in Bolivia.

Firstly, we should characterize the social situation in that Bolivia
(processed between May and June of 2005), when the crisis seemed
to take a definition. We can say that Bolivia lives a pre-revolutionary
situation. Because: 1) a great popular mobilization exists; 2) the
economy of the country is paralyzed due to such mobilization; 3) its
opened up a political crisis that took her resigns of the president and
the a vacuum of power; 4) direct and constant shocks of the masses
movement with the repressive\u2019s State organisms, police and
The current moment is a pre-revolutionary situation and not a
revolutionary situation. This because, up to now the people are not
still in weapons. This is the only objective condition that lacks for the
formation of a revolutionary situation. The subjective conditions were
given by the political work of more than 10 years of the different
workers organized movements. The masses movement could
precipitate for action, the formation of the revolutionary situation
(with the socket of Barracks, for instance).
In case this factor comes the if it adds to the others, a revolutionary
situation will be given. It is there the responsibility for the victory or it
defeats of the Bolivian proletariat will be in the hands of Partys and
organized Social Movements. It is only a political action guided by a
theory and a program can take to the victory of the people.
At this time, we can say that two alternatives formulated by the
opposition movements to the Carlos Mesa Government and the
Liberal Regime come toward the Bolivian proletariat and the history.
One is the reformist and democratic-bourgeois way, represented
principally by of the MAS of Evo Morales. Another would be the
revolutionary way, virtually possible, but that could not indicate the
existence of forces capable to guarantee them today in Bolivia. This is
an enigma.
The reformist way presented as solution the summons of new
Elections and of a Constituent Assembly. This is the classic repertoire
of the democratic-bourgeois oppositions. Before to pre-revolutionary
situation, it is clear the proposal reformist's is conservative, will
diverting the masses of the direction of the power assault.
The revolutionary way would indicate three solutions: 1) the general
insurrection (the model of the Russian revolution of 1917); 2) the
prolonged popular war (the model of the Chinese revolution and partly
also of the Vietnamese revolution); 3) the guerrillas' of short duration
war (the model Cuban and partly, the Algerian revolutions). The
problem is that nor all revolutionary situation develops in the sense of
the revolution, she can be retroactive for inter-classes commitments
or even to be dissolved by the dictatorship or other form of bourgeois
So that the revolutionary way consolidates, this is necessary three
basic conditions: 1) the existence of a Revolutionary Party or at least
of a Revolutionary Front (as teaches the case of Algeria) of national
performance, that it guarantees a strategy and unified direction of
struggle and the militarization of the popular movement in the correct
moment; 2) the existence of a strong Masses Movement, influenced
by such a party or front; 3) the formulation of a Program, that it
makes possible the agglutination of most of the masses for the power
It is necessary to know such conditions exist in Bolivia today. And in
case they don't exist, there they will probably be the reasons of the
impasses that the Bolivian proletariat will face. The masses
movement, that the world left should greet with enthusiasm, soon will
be before this impasse. Will it be necessary to throw a revolutionary
offensive, but will conditions exist for such?. If conditions exist, will
the preferential way would be it of the general insurrection and if this
to fail will remain the prolonged popular war. But to the that seems
such conditions they don't exist. One of the main leaders of the
opposition, Evo Morales, of the BUT (I Move to the Socialism), its
has an reformist programmatical orientation. As well as important
popular organizations signed the "Pact of Unit", document in favor of
the Constituent Assembly. She accepted to demobilize the people with
agreement that guaranteed Eduardo Rodríguez, president of the
Supreme Cut of Justice, as new president, that will summon general
elections. The following way for important sections of the masses
movement is the reformist way.
On the other hand it cannot seat and affirming not to be possible to do
anything or to be necessary support the road democratic-bourgeois
reformist apathetically. A revolution is not made of surprise, but it
doesn't also take the same time to be prepared that the diamonds take
to form. The working class and the revolutionary organizations can
create for its conscious and organized action some that necessary
conditions to the revolution.
Without the suitable conditions above, a General Insurrection in
Bolivia would have few success chances. The Prolonged Popular
War, that it would demand the previous formation of a popular army,
it would not also be shown viable. It remains then the possibility of a
War of Guerrillas of Short Duration that could develop either toward
the prolonged popular war or general uprising or a combined form of
the three,.
The guerrillas' war would be the viable alternative in these
circumstances for two factors: 1) the character predominantly
peasantry of the Bolivian movement; 2) the low degree of necessary
military development for such; 3) the wear and tear and
disorganization of the Bolivian State. Like this, the best alternative
inside of the revolutionary way it would be the "Cuban model", in that
the revolution was produced by the combination of the guerrillas' of
short duration war with the masses actions.
This model will demand the socket of a series of measures: 1st)
formation of a party and/or revolutionary front; 2nd) application of a
politics formation of political leading and of economical managers;
3rd) formation of a clandestine military organism in the cities; 4th)
formation of popular self-defense groups; 5th) formation of
clandestine bases in the field, that will serve as guerrilla focuses and
embryos of the popular army; 6th) creation of an International Net of
Solidarity (search of support of popular movements in Latin America,
especially in Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador); 7th) to establish the
worker-peasantry control, as alternative the mere "nationalization";
8th) formation of the Commune-Soviets as organisms of coordination
of the struggles and activities of production-circulation that will be
under proletarian control, this organism will become the territorial
units base of the popular power later.
These measured seek to the formation of a \u201cdouble
power\u201d in Bolivia: the power of the labor organizations and
peasantry s existing in relationship of permanent tension with the
power of State. They also seek to gain time without losing space, so
that the militant proletariat can organize their political and military
forces. It would be a form of trying to extract maximum of the current
pre-revolutionary situation lived by Bolivia, without incurring in
precipitations that can take the defeat. This is the most realistic
solution (according to our understanding), being ruled in the analysis
of the concrete historical experience and in the available data about
the Bolivian situation today. Any country that is in a similar situation
to the one of Bolivia would be confronted with the same impasses and
We should escape of the romantic and willful analyzes. The victory of
the Bolivian revolution depends on a correct strategy. But its still lacks
to understand as and why in spite of a pre-revolutionary's situation
formation, of the force of the popular movements, the revolution can
be defeated. For that, it is necessary to analyze the evolution of the
proletarian movement, of the political parties and their main ideas and

2 \u2013 Bolivia\u2019s teachings for Brazilian and Latin-American

The one that Bolivia already taught, and its will still teach for the
Brazilian and World proletariat, it is exactly the degree of the force in
that the popular movement can reach without walking necessarily for
the revolutionary rupture. In this sense, we can say that case the
situation in Bolivia develops for a civil war or be outlined by
agreements, its gives us the following lessons (that will be discussed
with larger theoretical depth in other occasions):

- it is necessary that the masses movement produces forms of
conscience and organization revolutionaries, that its have a theory and
a program, and that will guarantee the revolutionary direction and
militarization of the masses movement in the correct moment. As
Bakunin affirmed, it is "necessary the existence of an organization
that guarantees the revolutionary direction to the proletariat for a
prolonged preparation". The existence of a revolutionary organization
based on the theoretical unit, tactics, collective responsibility and
federalism is fundamental to the revolutionary process, as well as the
constitution of a revolutionary army.
- but if this pre-condition is not verified, the proletariat will be
immobilized by their own contradictions and it will surrender or it will
be defeated by the repression of the bourgeoisie. The revolution is the
war, and only for the war it is possible to destroy the bourgeois power.
The bourgeoisie knows this true. The solution against the
revolutionary war would the dictatorship. In the capitalist system, the
enlargement of the quantity and quality of the masses organization
has as against-departure the increase of the bourgeois organization.
As it increases social polarization around material claims (as it
happens in Bolivia regarding the control of the Gas), the final solution
on the classes conflicts will only be given by the violence. The
tendency then is that the dictatorship is the solution found by the
bourgeoisie, even if a "constitutional dictatorship", dictatorship
disguised under democratic mechanisms, as we already testified in
Latin America. When the masses movement faces a pre-revolutionary
situation, if he doesn't dispose would revolutionary organizations
prepared for such, the bourgeoisie will have time of to rearrange their
forces and to throw an offensive to destroy the masses movement. It is
that that the Bolivian bourgeoisie tries to do when gathering the
National Congress in Sucre, and when moving troops of the army for
the capital of the country, La Paz, and to do agreements to guarantee
elections, at the same time in that Vaca Diéz, of MIR, tries to
articulate "military way\u201d. The agreements give time for the
Bolivian State self reorganizes and to disarticulate the popular
movement for the repression and co-optation.

- another lesson, is the one that shows the revolutionary potential of
the peasantry and the importance of the ethnic contradictions for the
classes struggle. The economical crisis of Bolivia is directly linked to
the social inequality among a mass of indigenous peasantry and a
bourgeoisie criolla that it controls the agribusiness. In the current
stage of the world capitalism, Latin America occupies an sudorinated
place in the international division of the work, a position
fundamentally agrarian-exporter, as it is the case of Bolivia. The
economical contradictions between rural bourgeoisie and peasantry
and rural proletariat will took strategic dimension. The case of Bolivia
indicates that analyses contained in our document \u201cThe Social
Revolution in Brazil" (2004), and \u201cThe Lula's Reforms and to
Tasks of the Proletariat\u201d" (2005), at least still in the current
conjuncture, are correct.

The current situation of Bolivia deserves the attention of the
international proletariat. We should support, but also to interpret
theoretical and critically all of the steps of the movements of masses.
This crisis in Bolivia offers important lessons for Brazilian and World
Revolution. It is also to show the function of the bakuninist theory in
the elucidation of the main problems of the revolution.

Working class - Nor a Step Behind!
The People will Win!

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